Environment, natural systems, and development: an economic valuation guide
Benefit-cost analysis. Conceptual framework. Organization of the guide. Institutional and planning context. Multiple objetive nature of decisions. Planning and decision-making context. Organizational and administrative structure. Principles and environmental quality extensions of benefit-costs analysis. The purpose of benefit-cost analysis. Sources of values. Investment planning and decisions. Extension of benefit-cost analysis to environmental quality. Economic valuation techniques. Analyzing activities. Key definitions and concepts. Analyzing activities. Some examples of analysis. Analyzing effects on natural systems and receptors. Some problems in analyzing effects. Types of models for analyzing effects. Approaches to estimating effects. Choosing a model or set of models. Examples of estimating effects on natural systems. Some problems in estimating effects on natural systems. Approaches for estimating effects on receptors. Environmental quality valuation from the benefit side. Valuing benefits - a brief summary. Market value or productivity approaches. Surrogate market approaches. Litigation and compensation. Survey-based valuation techniques. Environmental quality valuation from the cost side. Cost analysis techniques. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Multiactivity economic-environmental quality models. Input-output models. Linear-programming models of environmental quality. Other models.
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INSTITUTIONAL AND PLANNING CONTEXT
PRINCIPLES AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY EXTENSIONS
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activities agricultural air pollution air quality alternative ambient environmental quality analyzed annual application Assessment assumption benefit-cost analysis benefits calculated changes Chapter coal coefficients compensating variation concentrations constraints consumer's surplus decision demand curve discount rate economic effects on natural electric emissions energy environment Environmental Economics equation estimated evaluation example factor Figure forest management function income increase individual industrial input-output models inputs investment irrigation Lake Powell land marginal market prices methods monetary natural systems natural-systems nitrogen off-site effects on-site Oosterschelde opportunity cost optimal output particulates planning power plant present value problem production property value quality management quantity receptors recreation reduce regional reservoir residuals discharges Schistosomiasis sector sediment shadow prices social soil erosion soil loss Source sulfur sulfur dioxide techniques tion trade-offs travel cost types unit utility valuation variables wetlands willingness to pay