Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction
This text is designed for those instructors who desire a comprehensive introduction to formal logic that is both rigorous and accessible to students encountering the subject for the first time. Numerous, carefully crafted exercise sets accompanied by clear, crisp exposition give students a firm grasp of basic concepts and take the student from sentential logic through first-order predicate logic, the theory of descriptions, and identity. As the title suggests, this is a book devoted not merely to logic; students will encounter an extraordinary amount of philosophy as well. Upon completing the first two parts of the text, a student will be well prepared for advanced courses in analytic philosophy. The last part deals with supplemental matters-informal fallacies, modal logic, and inductive logic, among others.
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Deduction and Induction
Deductive Argument Forms
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A D B antecedent argu argument is valid asserts assumed premise atomic sentences axiom system Betsy categorical propositions Chapter compound sentence conclusion false conditional proof Conj conjunction constant contains contradiction contraposition deductively valid disjunction domain domain of discourse exam example Exercise existential quantifier F F F F T F F T T F fallacy false conclusion formula given humans are mortal Impl inductive inference introduced logically equivalent loves main connective method Mill's Methods modal modal logic natural deduction negation occur philosophers possible predicate logic proposition prove quantifier rules replace restriction semantic sentence form sentential logic Simp someone statement substitution instance syllogism tautology tence theorem things translate true premises truth table truth-functional truth-value universal quantifier valid argument forms x)(Fx D Gx x)Fx