## Aristotelian LogicThis book provides detailed treatment of topics in traditional logic: the theory of terms; the theory of definition; the informal fallacies; and division and classification. Aristotelian Logic teaches techniques for solving semantic problems - problems caused by confusion over terminology. It teaches the theory of definition - the different kinds of definition and the criteria by which each is judged. It also teaches that definitions are like tools in that some are better suited for a particular task than others. Several chapters are devoted to informal fallacies. A new classification is given for them, and the concept of proof is presented, without which some of the traditional informal fallacies cannot be explained adequately. Another chapter is devoted to division and classification, which occurs in all of the sciences. Other topics covered include the square of opposition, immediate inferences, and the syllogistic and chain arguments. |

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### Contents

Arguments and Validity | 3 |

Propositions | 23 |

Logical Form and Counterexamples | 37 |

Terms | 51 |

Definition | 79 |

Division and Classification | 129 |

Basic Concepts of Aristotelian Logic | 143 |

Standard Categorical Propositions | 145 |

The Standard Syllogism Definitions | 265 |

A Deductive System of the Standard Syllogism | 271 |

Rules of the Standard Syllogism | 291 |

Chain Arguments Including Sorites | 309 |

Reducing the Number of Terms in Arguments | 319 |

Singular Propositions | 329 |

Standardizing Categorical Propositions | 339 |

The Enthymeme | 359 |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | 155 |

Existential Presuppositions of Aristotelian Logic | 179 |

Distribution of Terms in Categorical Propositions | 189 |

Conversion | 205 |

Immediate Inferences Not Needed for Standard Syllogism | 213 |

Negative Terms | 215 |

Obversion | 227 |

Contraposition | 233 |

Inversion and Partial Inversion | 239 |

Tables of Immediate Inferences | 245 |

Relations | 249 |

Reversible and Nonreversible Inferences | 261 |

Aristotelian Logic Mediated Inferences | 263 |

The Antilogism for NPair Arguments | 367 |

The Hypothetical Syllogism | 373 |

The Disjunctive Syllogism | 383 |

The Dilemma | 395 |

Informal Fallacies | 407 |

Proof and Fallacies | 409 |

Linguistic Fallacies | 423 |

Contextual Fallacies | 443 |

Illicit Appeals | 463 |

Transition to Symbolic Logic | 489 |

From Aristotelian to Symbolic Logic | 491 |

537 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

affirmative animals antilogistic appeal appeal to pity appropriate letter argument form Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle's asserts authority called categorical syllogism cats chain argument classification concept conclusion contrapositive deductive argument defined definiendum definiendum term definiens denotation dilemma discrete term disjunctive syllogism distinct terms distributed division dogs entails enthymeme equivalent example Exercises for Chapter existential expert extensional definition fallacy false figure form words formal fallacy formally valid genus given hence hypothetical syllogism iffi immediate inference implies indirect reduction intended invalid kind lexical definition logicians major premiss mammals meaning minor mixed hypothetical syllogism negative non-P objects obverse partial inverse person polyad possible predicate term proof proved quantifier real definition relation rules sentence singular term Socrates species square of opposition standard categorical propositions standard syllogism stipulative definition subaltern subcontraries subject term subterm syllogistic form synonym thesis things tion traditional logic triad true premisses truth-value undistributed universal valid argument wombat