Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century
Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, Center for Education, Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council
National Academies Press, Jan 1, 2013 - Education - 229 pages
Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills."
Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments.
This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums.
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3 Importance of Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills
4 Perspectives on Deeper Learning
5 Deeper Learning of English Language Arts Mathematics and Science
6 Teaching and Assessing for Transfer
7 Systems to Support Deeper Learning
Appendix A 21st Century Skills and Competencies Included in OECD Survey
Appendix B Reports on 21st Century Skills Used in Aligning and Clustering Skills
Appendix C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
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21st century competencies 21st century skills academic achievement American Psychological Association Association behavior Chapter classroom cognitive ability cognitive competencies committee Common Core communication concepts Core State Standards correlations curriculum designed Developmental Psychology disciplinary disciplines discussed Economic educational attainment Educational Psychology effective engage English language arts evaluation evidence example feedback focus focused formative assessment Framework grades Grouws high school important instruction interpersonal and intrapersonal interpersonal competencies interpersonal domains interpersonal skills interventions intrapersonal and interpersonal Journal knowledge and skills labor market latent variables learners learning and 21st learning environments learning goals literacy mathematics Mayer measures meta-analysis metacognitive metacognitive strategies motivation National Academy National Research Council neuroticism noncognitive one’s outcomes performance practice predictive problem solving programs Psychology reading reflect relationship Science Education self-efficacy self-regulated learning social strategies studies support deeper learning tasks taxonomy teachers teaching and learning transferable knowledge understanding Wigfield