The Physics and Psychophysics of Music: An Introduction
This introductory text deals with the physical systems and biological processes that intervene in what we broadly call 'music.' It analyzes what physical properties of sound patterns are associated with what psychological sensations of music, and describes how these sound patterns are actually produced in musical instruments, how they propagate through the environment, and how they are detected by the ear and interpreted in the brain. Without using complicated mathematics, the author weaves a close mesh between the disciplines of acoustics, psychophysics, and neurobiology, offering an integral picture of not only the science of music, but also the 'music of science', that is, the beauty and excitement of scientific research, reasoning and understanding. This text should be accessible to undergraduate-level students, whether from science, arts or engineering schools, but it should also be useful to professional musicians, physics educators, acoustical engineers and neuroscientists. The fourth edition incorporates recent research on tone generation in musical instruments and latest findings in brain science.
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to 2 Sound Vibrations Pure Tones and the Perception of Pitch
to 3 Sound Waves Acoustic Energy and the Perception of Loudness
to 4 Generation of Musical Sounds Complex Tones and the Perception of Timbre
to 5 Superposition and Successions of Complex Tones and the Integral Perception of Music
Appendix I Some Quantitative Aspects of the Bowing Mechanism
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acoustic air column amplitude auditory system basilar membrane beats brain called characteristic cochlea combination tones complex tone consonance corresponding cortex critical band eardrum effect electronic energy excitation experiments f1 and f2 fibers fifth FIGURE frequency difference frequency f1 function fundamental frequency given hair cells hemisphere higher human increase inharmonic input instance intensity listen loudness maximum mechanism melody missing fundamental mistuned motion musical instruments musical intervals musical tone nervous system neural activity neurons octave organ oscillation period phase physical piano pipe pitch processor pitch sensation play pressure variations primary propagation psychoacoustic psychophysical pulse pure tones reed relation repetition rate represents resonance peaks resonance regions response resulting role scale Sect sensory shown in Fig signals simple harmonic motion sinusoidal sound wave spatial specific spectrum standing waves stimulus string superposition synaptic timbre tion tonal transverse wave tuning two-tone upper harmonics velocity vibration pattern