Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 1997 - History - 1117 pages
Advisory Board: Ho Peng Yoke, Needham Research Institute, University of Cambridge, UK; David Turnbull, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Jan P. Hogendijk, Mathematics Institute, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands; Gloria T. Emeagwali, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT, USA; Seyyed Hossein Nasr, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA; Susantha Goonatilake, United Nations, New York, USA The Encyclopaedia fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. Reference works on other cultures tend either to omit science completely or pay little attention to it and those on the history of science almost always start with the Greeks, with perhaps a mention of the Islamic world as a translator of Greek scientific works. The purpose of the Encyclopaedia was to bring together knowledge of many disparate fields in one place and to legitimize the study of other cultures' science. The aim was not to claim the superiority of other cultures, but to engage in a mutual exchange of ideas. The western academic divisions of science, technology, and medicine have been united in the Encyclopaedia because in ancient cultures these disciplines were connected. This Work contributes to redressing the balance in the number of reference works devoted to the study of Western science, and encourages awareness of cultural diversity. The Encyclopaedia is the first compilation of this sort, and it is testimony both to the earlier eurocentric view of academia as well as to the widened vision we tend to nowadays. There is nothing that crosses disciplinary and geographic boundaries, dealing with both scientific and philosophical issues to the extent that this work does. The Encyclopaedia contains almost 600 entries dealing in depth with the history of the scientific, technological accomplishments of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. The geographic range is global, including native Americans. This unique reference work includes: Intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy Philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western science, such as Rationality, Objectivity, and Method, Religion and Science, East and West, and Magic and Science Actual articles on topics such as Native American mathematics, Polynesian navigation, Korean maps, and African metallurgy Biographical articles for those cultures where individual scientists are known to us, such as China and the Islamic world. SPECIAL FEATURES: Multidisciplinary The Encyclopaedia covers the life and physical sciences, medicine, technology, and related fields such as sociology and philosophy of science. Multicultural The Encyclopaedia covers Africa, Asia, the Islamic world, Native America (North, Central, and South), and the Pacific. It includes articles about Malaysian medicine, Australian Aboriginal mathematics, Marshall Island stick charts (maps), and Sona (Africa) geometry. Many of these cultures are completely absent from other works about science. Comparative The Encyclopaedia makes it easy to compare disciplines across cultures (Chinese mathematics, trigonometry, maps, medicine, geography, navigation, astronomy, and acoustics) and cultures across disciplines (Islamic, Chinese, Indo-Malay, African, and Native American astronomy). Easy to use The arrangement is alphabetical, with many cross-references and many index entries. Extensive bibliographies Researchers will be able to go on from the encyclopedic entry to other scholarly literature with ease. Audience: Researchers in the history or philosophy of science will find the Encyclopaedia a valuable reference work which will of great help in their research. Historians, scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and students will also benefit from the research which has been incorporated in the Encyclopaedia.
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It takes a change of culture, of the mode of reactions to circumstances, to effect a change of habit. Genetics is the progeny of culture, not vice versa. This applies in ALL fields of human activities, including economy, to ALL personal and social behavioral aspects.
Since the early 1900’s ALL “science” has been taken over by the Technology Culture of the religious Americans, represented by the trade-union-church AAAS. Plain and simple. There has not been any science in the world since then except “religious-American-science”.
On the blissful religious science ignorance…:
USA-World Science Hegemony Is Science Blind
Since the early 2000s I have been posting many articles on science items surveyed and analyzed by me, without religious background-concepts. I have been doing this because I was deeply disturbed by the religiosity of the 1848-founded AAAS trade-union and by the consequent religious background-tint of its extensive “scientific” publications and activities.
On my next birthday I’ll be 88-yrs old. I know that I’m deeply engaged in a Don Quixotic mission-war to extricate-free the USA and world Science from the clutches and consequences of the religious-trade-union-church AAAS, adopted strangely by the majority of scientifically ignorant religious god-trusting Americans and by their most other humanity following flocks…
But I am sincerely confident that only thus it is feasible and possible to embark on a new, rational, Human culture (Scientism) and on new more beneficial and effective technology courses for humanity…
Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
Energy-Mass Poles Of The Universe
Decide Humanity: Scientism Or Natural Selection
A doctrine and method characteristic of scientists, and the proposition that scientific doctrine and methods of studying natural sciences should be used in all areas of investigation and in conduct of politics-social-cultural-civil affairs in pursuit of an efficient practical, as fair as possible, civics framework.
All mass formats, inanimate and animate, follow natural selection, i.e. intake of energy or their energy taken in by other mass formats.
All politics and economics, local, national and international, are about evolutionary biology, about Darwinian evolution, about survival, about obtaining and maintaining and distributing energy.
is a virtual factor-component in human’s natural selection. Its target-function is to preserve-proliferate specific cultural phenotypes.
Natural selection-religion are compatible with technology-capitalism but are obviously incompatible with science-scientism, that targets preservation-proliferation of the genotype.
Science-scientism is an obvious threat to the survival of a cultural phenotype.
Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
For A Scientism Culture
As i was reading the first entry, abacus, i found there is clear biased point of view. In the very last paragraph, the author simply stated abacus was taken from Western Europe to the East by Christian migrations becuse there were Roman bead-frame calculators found at some archeological sites that are similar to the Chinese suan-pan. No specific time, location references of the archeological sites and simply no facts. Just opinion. That is not an encyclopaedia mean to be.