The Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture
In describing and explaining the sexes, medicine and science participated in the delineation of what was 'feminine' and what was 'masculine' in the Middle Ages. Hildegard of Bingen and Albertus Magnus, among others, writing about gynecology, the human constitution, fetal development, or the naturalistic dimensions of divine Creation, became increasingly interested in issues surrounding reproduction and sexuality. Did women as well as men produce procreative seed? How did the physiology of the sexes influence their healthy state and their susceptibility to disease? Who derived more pleasure from intercourse, men or women? This book explores how scientific ideas about sex differences in the later Middle Ages participated in the broader culture's assumptions about gender. Cadden discusses how medieval natural philosophical theories and medical notions about reproduction and sexual impulses and experiences intersected with ideas about such matters as the social roles of men and women, and the purpose of marriage.
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The transmission of ancient
The emergence of issues and the ordering of opinions
medicine and natural philosophy
SEX DIFFERENCE AND THE CONSTRUCTION
The possibilities and limitations
Albertus Magnus ancient animals Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle's associated Avicenna behavior Bernardus de Gordonio Bibliothèque Nationale Cambridge University Library Causae et curae causes coitu commentary complexion conception concern Constantine Constantine the African context delectatio discussions emission example female and male female pleasure female seed feminine fetus function Galen gender Giles of Rome gynecology heat Hildegard Hildegard of Bingen Hippocrates Hippocratic human Ibid ideas infertility intercourse late medieval Latin male and female marriage masculine medical writers medicine and natural medieval authors menstruation monastic mulier mulierum natural philosophy notion penis physiological principles problems produce Prose Salernitan Questions Quaestiones de animalibus quod recipes religious Salerno scientific semen sense sex determination sex difference sexual abstinence sexual pleasure social Soranus sources specific sperm sterility suggests Taddeo texts theory tion traditions trans translated treatise twelfth century uterus virginity William of Conches woman womb women writing