Understanding Physics

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 10, 2002 - Science - 851 pages
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UNDERSTANDING PHYSICS is an innovative introductory course designed for students preparing to enter careers in fields outside of science or engineering, including students planning to teach, or already teaching, in K-12 classrooms. It is inspired by the famous Project Physics Course, which became known for its success in inspiring students with the excitement of physics by placing its concepts within a broader humanistic context.||UNDERSTANDING PHYSICS enables students to gain a full appreciation of physics both as a discipline and as a body of knowledge: a sense of what the concepts mean, where they came from, and why we think we know what we know. The course is among the first to accommodate recommendations of the "National Science Education Standards" from the National Academy of Sciences and the "Benchmarks for Science Literacy" from Project 2061 at the college level. Understanding Physics also incorporates the most recent advances in understanding how students learn physics and where they encounter difficulties, and it offers great flexibility to instructors to adapt the course to the needs of their students and to their own needs and interests.||The course components - textbook, student guide, instructor guide - all work together to provide students with an integrated experience in physics. |·The text provides a conceptual framework and connecting narrative for the course that promotes an active engagement with the material. |·Each chapter contains questions designed to help students confirm what they have learned as well as questions to encourage them to go beyond the reading, in individual study, laboratory work, and group discussion. |·The student guide provides both written and hands-on activities for enhancing understanding|·The suggested laboratory work includes in-depth explorations, student-designed inquiries, and text-related mini-explorations that may be used as hands-on activities or as demonstrations with student participation.
 

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Contents

Prologue to Part One
3
2 OUR PLACE IN TIME AND SPACE
4
3 FIRST THINGS FIRST
6
4 ARISTOTLES UNIVERSE
9
Motion Matters
15
12 GALILEO
16
13 A MOVING OBJECT
18
14 PICTURING MOTION
25
99 RELATIVITY OF MASS
431
910 MASS AND ENERGY
433
911 CONFIRMING RELATIVITY
434
912 BREAKING WITH THE PAST
441
FIELDS AND ATOMS
449
Prologue to Part Two
451
2 THE MECHANICAL WORLD VIEW
455
Electricity and Magnetism
459

15 SPEED AND VELOCITY
30
16 CHANGING THE SPEED
31
17 FALLING FREELY
36
18 TWO NEW SCIENCES
38
FALLING OBJECTS
41
110 THE CONSEQUENCES
47
Moving the Earth
57
22 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
58
23 COPERNICUS
59
24 THE GEOCENTRIC VIEW
61
25 COPERNICUS VERSUS PTOLEMY
75
26 ARGUMENTS FOR THE HELIOCENTRIC SYSTEM
79
27 ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE HELIOCENTRIC SYSTEM
82
28 CARRYING FORTH THE REVOLUTION
86
29 NEW DATA
88
210 NEW ORBITS
92
211 NEW OBSERVATIONS
102
212 GALILEO CONDEMNED
109
Understanding Motion
117
32 FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM
123
33 MORE ABOUT VECTORS
125
34 NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION
128
35 MEASURING MASS AND FORCE
132
36 MORE ABOUT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS
136
37 NEWTONS THIRD LAW OF MOTION
140
B THE THREE LAWS IN ACTION
143
39 THE EARTH CAN MOVE
146
310 GALILEAN RELATIVITY
149
311 ORBITING SATELLITES
150
312 CIRCULAR MOTION
156
Newtons Unified Theory
171
42 ISAAC NEWTON
173
43 NEWTONS PRINCIPIA
176
44 THE INVERSESQUARE LAW
179
45 THE LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
182
46 NEWTONS SYNTHESIS
185
47 NEWTON AND HYPOTHESES
186
48 THE MAGNITUDE OF THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
188
49 THE VALUE OF G AND SOME CONSEQUENCES
192
410 FURTHER SUCCESSES
198
411 THE NATURE OF NEWTONS WORK
204
Conserving Matter Motion
211
52 COLLISIONS
217
53 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
219
54 MOMENTUM AND NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION
223
55 ISOLATED SYSTEMS
226
56 ELASTIC COLLISIONS
228
57 LEIBNIZ AND THE CONSERVATION LAW
231
58 WORK
233
59 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY
235
510 POTENTIAL ENERGY
236
511 CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
239
512 FORCES THAT DO NO WORK
243
The Dynamics of Heat
253
62 THE STEAM ENGINE AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
258
63 POWER AND EFFICIENCY OF ENGINES
267
64 CARNOT AND THE BEGINNINGS OF THERMODYNAMICS
269
65 ARRIVING AT A GENERAL CONSERVATION LAW
273
66 THE TWO LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
278
67 FAITH IN THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
282
HeatA Matter of Motion
293
72 A MODEL FOR THE GASEOUS STATE
300
73 THE SPEEDS OF MOLECULES
302
74 THE SIZES OF MOLECULES
305
B APPLYING THE KINETIC THEORY
308
76 KINETICTHEORY EXPLANATION OF THE SECOND LAW
313
77 MAXWELLS DEMON AND THE STATISTICAL VIEW OF THE SECOND LAW
315
78 TWO CHALLENGES
319
Wave Motion
331
82 THE PROPERTIES OF WAVES
332
83 WAVE PROPAGATION
336
84 PERIODIC WAVES
338
85 WHEN WAVES MEET
342
86 A TWOSOURCE INTERFERENCE PATTERN
345
87 STANDING WAVES
350
88 WAVE FRONTS AND DIFFRACTION
354
89 REFLECTION
360
810 REFRACTION
366
811 SOUNDWAVES
370
B LIGHT
373
813 PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
375
814 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
378
815 INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION
382
816 WHAT IS COLOR?
386
817 WHY IS THE SKY BLUE?
390
818 POLARIZATION
392
819 THE ETHER
395
Einstein and Relativity Theory
405
92 ALBERT EINSTEIN
408
93 THE RELATIVITY PRINCIPLE
410
94 CONSTANCY OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT
415
95 SIMULTANEOUS EVENTS
418
96 RELATIVITY OF TIME
420
97 TIME DILATION
424
98 RELATIVITY OF LENGTH
428
102 ELECTRIC CHARGES AND ELECTRIC FORCES
462
103 FORCES AND FIELDS
472
104 ELECTRIC CURRENTS
479
105 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
482
106 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE AND CURRENT
486
107 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE AND POWER
487
108 CURRENTS ACT ON MAGNETS
488
109 CURRENTS ACT ON CURRENTS
492
1010 MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MOVING CHARGES
495
The Electric Age
505
112 FARADAYS FIRST ELECTRIC MOTOR
506
113 THE DISCOVERY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
507
THE GENERATOR
512
THE MOTOR
516
116 THE ELECTRIC LIGHT BULB
520
THE NIAGARA FALLS POWER PLANT
525
118 THE ENERGY PICTURE TODAY
528
119 CONSERVATION
531
1110 RENEWABLE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
537
Electromagnetic Waves
549
122 MAXWELLS PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
551
123 THE PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
556
124 HERTZS EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION
560
125 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
563
126 WHAT ABOUT THE ETHER NOW?
578
Probing the Atom
585
132 THE IDEA OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE
589
133 CATHODE RAYS
590
134 THE SMALLEST CHARGE
594
135 THOMSONS MODEL OF THE ATOM
596
136 THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
598
137 EINSTEINS THEORY OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
602
138 X RAYS
608
The Quantum Model of the Atom
621
142 REGULARITIES IN THE HYDROGEN SPECTRUM
626
143 RUTHERFORDS NUCLEAR MODEL OF THE ATOM
630
144 NUCLEAR CHARGE AND SIZE
635
THE POSTULATES
637
146 THE SIZE OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM
640
147 OTHER CONSEQUENCES OF THE BOHR MODEL
641
148 BOHR ACCOUNTS FOR THE SERIES SPECTRA OF HYDROGEN
642
149 DO STATIONARY STATES REALLY EXIST?
647
1410 CONSTRUCTING THE PERIODIC TABLE
648
1411 EVALUATING THE BOHR MODEL
654
Quantum Mechanics
661
152 THE PARTICLELIKE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT
662
153 THE WAVELIKE BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES
665
154 CONSTRUCTING QUANTUM MECHANICS
669
155 THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
673
156 ORIGINS AND A CONSEQUENCE OF THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
676
157 THE PROBABILITY INTERPRETATION
679
158 THE COMPLEMENTARITY PRINCIPLE
682
159 SOME REACTIONS
685
Solids Matter
693
162 FORMING A SOLID
694
163 QUANTUM SOLIDS
697
164 CONDUCTING ELECTRONS
699
165 BANDING TOGETHER
702
166 SUPERCONDUCTORS
705
167 SEMICONDUCTORS
707
168 INTRODUCING IMPURITIES
709
169 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
710
1610 TRANSISTORS
714
1611 SOME APPLICATIONS OF TRANSISTORS
717
Probing the Nucleus
723
172 BECQUERELS DISCOVERY
724
173 THE CURIES DISCOVER OTHER RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS
728
174 IDENTIFYING THE RAYS
733
175 THE CHARGE AND MASS OF THE RAYS
734
176 RUTHERFORDS MOUSETRAP
737
177 RADIOACTIVE TRANSFORMATIONS
739
178 RADIOACTIVE DECAY SERIES
740
179 DECAY RATE AND HALFLIFE
743
1710 THE CONCEPT OF ISOTOPES
746
1711 TRANSFORMATION RULES
749
1712 SUMMARY OF NOTATION FOR NUCLIDES AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS
751
1713 SOME USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY
753
The Nucleus and Its Applications
763
182 THE PROTONELECTRON HYPOTHESIS
764
183 THE DISCOVERY OF ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION
766
184 THE DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON
769
185 THE PROTONNEUTRON MODEL
773
186 THE NEUTRINO
775
187 THE NEED FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
777
188 THE ENERGY OF NUCLEAR BINDING
780
189 NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY AND STABILITY
783
DISCOVERY
786
1811 CONTROLLING CHAIN REACTIONS
791
1812 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
797
1813 NUCLEAR WEAPONS
799
NUCLEAR FUSION
805
Illustration Credits
819
Index
829
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Born in Berlin, Germany, Gerald Holton received his Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1946. Shortly afterward, he launched into what has become a major part of his career---directing a well-known program that originally was developed to teach physical science to liberal arts majors at Harvard. This program, called Harvard Project Physics, became the model for an ambitious program to teach physics in a similar historical manner in colleges and high schools throughout the United States. Later, Holton used this model in a somewhat different manner, establishing a program for the public understanding of science that eventually grew into a journal, Science, Technology and Human Values. For many years, Holton was a coeditor of Daedalus, the journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has also gained recognition as a biographer of Albert Einstein, and he has worked tirelessly to demonstrate that science requires as much creative imagination as do the arts and humanities.

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