Commonsense ReasoningTo endow computers with common sense is one of the major longterm goals of Artificial Intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning is a detailed, highlevel reference on logicbased commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik T. Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an uptodate work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions to problems that span many areas of the commonsense world.

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Contents
1  
17  
Part II Commonsense Phenomena  53 
Part III Commonsense Domains  163 
Part IV Default Reasoning  223 
Part V Programs and Applications  239 
Part VI Logical and Nonlogical Methods  269 
Part VII Conclusion  319 
Part VIII Appendices  325 
361  
391  
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Common terms and phrases
agent arity axiomatization binary relation cancellation CIRC CIRCLX circumscription classical logic commonsense knowledge commonsense law commonsense reasoning concurrent events conjunction continuous change Cycorp DEC5 DEC9 default reasoning defined DEFINITION Discrete Event Calculus discussed domain description effect axioms effects of events Event Calculus Reasoner event occurrences event that occurs example firstorder logic fluent calculus fluent f follows Formalize formula function symbol goal Happens Happens(e Happens(e,t Holds.At(Believe(a HoldsAt(f,t indirect effects infer Initiates Initiates(e input integer introduced law of inertia Lifschitz McCarthy method Miller and Shanahan Nathan node object occurs at timepoint phone2 postdiction predicate symbol problem Proof PROPOSITION qualification problem ramification problem real number Released At(6 ReleasedAt(f,t Releases(e representation Sandewall Satiated(Cat scenario secondorder logic Section situation calculus society of mind sort specify Terminates Terminates(e Theorem 2.1 Thielscher ThoughtTreasure timepoint timepoint term trigger axioms truth value variables
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