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action actual amount appear become bring called carrying cause charges common competition condition consumers continue corporation cost create demand depends dollars dynamic earnings economic effect employers entrepreneur equal established existence fact fall field final fixed force fund future gains give hand important improvement income increase industry influence interest invention keep kind labor and capital land larger less limit machine marginal material means measure method mill monopoly move movement natural operation organization particular persons population positive possible present profit progress protection railroad reason reduce relation rent represents requires result returns rise secure selling social society standard static subgroup supply tend term things tion true trust union unit utility wages wealth whole workers
Page 510 - It is thoroughly intelligent, independent, suggestive, and manifests an unaffected enthusiasm for social progress, and on the whole a just and sober apprehension of the conditions and essential features of such progress.
Page 39 - In all stages of social development the economic motives that actuate men remain essentially the same. All men seek to get as much net service from material wealth as they can. The more wealth they have, other things remaining the same, the better off they are, and the more personal sacrifice they are compelled to undergo in the securing of the wealth, the worse off they are. Some of the benefit received is neutralized by the sacrifice incurred; but there is a net surplus of gains not thus cancelled...
Page 253 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being. They have enabled a greater population to live the same life of drudgery and imprisonment, and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make fortunes.
Page 325 - Professor JB Clark was still writing: 'If the patented article is something which society without a patent system would not have secured at all - the inventor's monopoly hurts nobody. . . . His gains consist in something which no one loses, even while he enjoys them.
Page 38 - ... to speak of the mobility of capital ; that is to say, so soon as he makes use of it. A single illustration of this will have to suffice, though there are several points in his argument where the frailty of the conception is patent enough. The transfer of capital from one industry to another is a dynamic phenomenon which is later to be considered.
Page 191 - ... For an interesting variant on these views of statics see Knight, PA, "Risk, Uncertainty and Profit," 1921, Ch. 5. ously within the economic regime were either considered unimportant, or of that quantitative type that affected in no wise the premises of the reasoner. For one group it seemed true that "the actual form of a highly dynamic society hovers relatively near to its static model, though it never conforms to it" ; 23 for another dynamics represented a transition stage that was to statics...
Page 253 - At its introduction an economical device often forces some men to seek new occupations, but it never reduces the general demand for labor. As progress closes one field of employment, it opens others, and it has come about that after a century and a quarter of brilliant invention and of rapid and general substitution of...
Page 301 - The machine itself is often a hopeless specialist. It can do one minute thing and that only, and when a new and better device appears for doing that one thing, the machine has to go, and not to some new employment, but to the junk heap. There is thus taking place a considerable waste of capital in consequence of mechanical and other progress.
Page 510 - Giddings shows itself to the best advantage. The problems of anthropology and ethnology are also fully and ably handled. Of the other parts I like best of all the discussion of tradition and of social choices ; on these topics he shows the greatest originality. I have not the space to take up these or other doctrines in detail, nor would such work be of much value. A useful book must be read to be understood.
Page 507 - It is not too much to say that the publication of Professor Clark's book marks an epoch in the history of economic thought in the United States. Its inspirations, its illustrations, even its independence of the opinions of others, are American; but its originality, the brilliancy of its reasoning, and its completeness deserve and will surely obtain for it a place in world literature.