Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis: Third Edition
Joseph Goldstein, Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, David C. Joy, Patrick Echlin, Charles E. Lyman, Eric Lifshin, Linda Sawyer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distinguished Scientist and Director Electron Microscope Facility David C Joy, Dale E. (National Institute of Standards and Technology Newbury, Gaithersburg MD USA), J.R. Michael, Charles E. (Lehigh University Lyman, Bethlehem PA USA), J.R. (Sandia National Laboratories Michael, Albuquerque NM USA)
Springer US, 2003 - Juvenile Nonfiction - 689 pages
In the decade since the publication of the second edition of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, there has been a great expansion in the capabilities of the basic scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the x-ray spectrometers. The emergence of the variab- pressure/environmental SEM has enabled the observation of samples c- taining water or other liquids or vapor and has allowed for an entirely new class of dynamic experiments, that of direct observation of che- cal reactions in situ. Critical advances in electron detector technology and computer-aided analysis have enabled structural (crystallographic) analysis of specimens at the micrometer scale through electron backscatter diffr- tion (EBSD). Low-voltage operation below 5 kV has improved x-ray spatial resolution by more than an order of magnitude and provided an effective route to minimizing sample charging. High-resolution imaging has cont- ued to develop with a more thorough understanding of how secondary el- trons are generated. The ?eld emission gun SEM, with its high brightness, advanced electron optics, which minimizes lens aberrations to yield an - fective nanometer-scale beam, and “through-the-lens” detector to enhance the measurement of primary-beam-excited secondary electrons, has made high-resolution imaging the rule rather than the exception. Methods of x-ray analysis have evolved allowing for better measurement of specimens with complex morphology: multiple thin layers of different compositions, and rough specimens and particles. Digital mapping has transformed classic x-ray area scanning, a purely qualitative technique, into fully quantitative compositional mapping.
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