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compete by mail or telephone. Standards in regard to rules and methods should be mutually agreed upon by representatives from each school before the competition.
Field Days, Track a^d Field Meets.
The success of field days and meets depends upon careful and definite planning. All preparations for the meet should be made in advance, so that there may be no delay in getting the events started promptly. Printed programs (see pp. 9 and 76) of the different events should be prepared and placed on sale on the day of the meet. If this is not advisable, a large blackboard should be placed on the grounds and the order of events posted. This will make the work of the announcers much easier and will prevent confusion. Cards for scoring the events should be prepared in advance with the names and numbers of contestants entered in the proper place. .
Rules for conducting events will be found on page 58 of the appendix.
Preparation of the Program.
The size of the program will depend of course largely upon the purpose to be served by having a field day. If several communities are to join in the field d&y and plan to make it an all-day affair, the program should be much more ambitious than will be possible if the meet is to be confined to perhaps but one community. In general the committee should consider the advisability of having a program consisting of track and field events for boys and girls in the different classes (weight classification may be used unless some of the other classifications are decided upon), relay races, a ball game, stunts (wrestling, window jumping, etc.), playground games for all who will enter (the audience as well as the school children), possibly a calisthenic drill in which the competitors may be judged or classes from different schools compete, a band concert, an address on some phase of health education, or perhaps a demonstration of first-aid methods. It is not wise to put all the interesting features on the program, but rather keep some for subsequent field days. In many places the field-day program includes contests in spelling, speed on the typewriter, oratorical contests, etc. In fact the program may be made a part of the county fair. The value of having folk dancing on the program is unquestionable; it helps get the audience into the spirit of the occasion and helps very greatly toward making the meet a success. On the other hand we have the formal athletic meet, which consists largely, if indeed not entirely, of an intensive and extensive program of athletic competition. Both types have their place and serve valuable purposes. But for the small community, it is often better to make the program one large family gathering in •which something is arranged for all to enter, the grown-ups as well as the school children.
The organization and planning of the program involves many tMngs; a suggested list is here offered:
I. Preliminary arrangements.
(a) Announcement of the meet or field day.
(6) Selection of time and place.
(c) Posting of eligibility rules.
(d) Classification of contestants.
(e) List of events and order of events.
(f) Statement concerning special rules.
(g) Statement of prizes offered. (A) Appointment of officials.
(i) Organization of student committees.
(j) Instruction of officials in rules and duties.
(Jc) Preparation and care of equipment and track.
//. Conduct of meet.
(a) Roll call of officials and appointment of substitutes.
(6) Running off of events as listed on the program.
///. General statements.
(a) Each pupil in the school should have an opportunity to participate in one event before any student is selected for two events.
(6) The number of events in which a boy or girl may take part should be limited.
(c) At least 80 per cent of the school, class, or group should participate in the meet.
(d) Scores are obtained by dividing the sum of the scores of the individuals or teams by the number competing. If games are included, one point should be awarded to the winning team.
A scoring table, by which every contestant, no matter how poor his record, may contribute toward his team or class score, with the point system is given on page 65 of the appendix.
(e) Suitable police supervision should be assured.
(/) A press reporter and a photographer should be present; both of whom should submit their material to the principal of the school before it is published in order that desirable press notices may be obtained.
Preparation of Track, and Field for the Meet.
The following points should be observed in arranging for an athletic meet:
1. Mark the starting and finishing lines with lime.
2. Mark the lanes for the dash.
3. Mark the different distances so that they are readily discernible.
4. Place the hurdles on the side of the track opposite their places.
5. Dig jumping pits.
6. Have standards for high jump in place.
For dashes.—A level surface carefully measured. Remove a loose stones.
For running broad jump.—Take-off board, an 8-inch joist. Sin] this flush with the ground. Fill pit with loose dirt and rake afte each jump.
For running high jump.—See bulletin published by the Bureau o; Education, Preparation of School Grounds for Play Fields and Ath letic Events, Physical Education Series No. 1, page 13.
List of Necessary Equipment.
The rules given below may be accepted or modified as the committee sees fit.
1. No pupil may enter more than three events (one running, one field, and one game).
2. No pupil may represent his school unless he has been a member of the school for at least three months.
3. No pupil may be admitted to any contest unless he has received a passing mark in all his studies, in deportment, and in attendance.
4. No entry will be accepted unless it has the approval of the pupil's parent and teacher.
5. A physician's certificate of physical fitness is required.
6. Entries must be in seven days before the date of the meet.
7. All entries should be mailed to the individual in charge of the meet. As the entry blanks are received, each should be given a number in order, which is given to the contestant and worn during the meet to facilitate identification and scoring. A sample entry blank is shown on page 76.
Suggestions for Classification of Contestants.
If it is desired to conduct the meet on the classification basis, the following suggestions are offered:
1. Pupils should be classified according to their age and weight.
All who were 16 years old on or before are considered
as seniors; all others are juniors.
2. The junior class may be divided as follows: 85 pounds and under, 100 pounds and under, 115 pounds 'and under, 130 pounds and under, and junior unlimited weight. The latter class includes all who are not yet 16 and are too heavy to enter the other divisions in the junior class. Weight in the senior section is unlimited.
3. Contestants should be weighed on the day of the meet in the costume in which they are to compete and should not be overweight.
In a manual of Physical Education for Elementary Grades, published by the State Board of Education of Hartford, Conn., the following helpful suggestions are offered in regard to weighing and measuring of entries:
To weigh large numbers in a short time, set the scales at 95 and have the pupils lined up to step on and off the scales one after the other. All above 95 pounds form in one line, and those below in another. Then set the beam at 80 pounds and repeat with the lighter group. Next set the scale at 110 pounds and repeat the division. As each group is formed have an assistant take their names and other necessary information.
If the weight is taken in street clothes, a definite amount should be allowed for the clothing, 3 to 5 pounds, for pupils weighing 100 pounds, and 5 to 8 for pupils over 100 pounds.
Selection of Officials.
Much of the success of the program will depend upon the ability of the officials to conduct the meet properly. They should understand their duties and be familiar with the rules. Oftentimes the professional men in the community will give their services, and they are especially valuable because most of them have had an opportunity to learn something about athletics while at college. Not infrequently, it will be possible to secure the services of some one from the State university or neighboring college. If there is a Young Men's Christian Association or Young Women's Christian Association in the community, or a scout organization, efficient services can be secured from these sources. The officials should be called together, half an hour before the time set for the program Jbo begin, to receive final instructions. Opportunity for questions to be answered can be given at this time and distribution of scoring cards, etc., made. The following officials are usually selected: Referee, inspectors, field judges, timekeepers, clerk of the course, scorer, starter, custodian of prizes and field doctor. Suggestions in regard to the duties of these officials are given in the appendix, on page 58.
Any effort to give the details connected with the teaching of the different games and athletic events would be futile and would seriously mislead the person in charge of this work. A bibliography with references on this subject has been prepared and may be found in the Appendix of this bulletin. No physical education director should attempt to carry out a program of organized games and athletics without having access to at least one standard book on each division of the work. Official statements regarding rules for the standard team games and for the conduct of athletic events may be found in the official publications of the guidebooks published by the various sporting goods companies.
However, it may not be amiss to suggest briefly some of the things that should be kept in mind in supervising a game and athletic program. The suggestions which follow are offered from the experience of others, for the benefit of those who have had no experience along these lines and yet wish to conduct a worthwhile.program in games and athletics.
In the first place it should be borne in mind that the games of both boys and girls at this period should demand skill but to no large extent physical-endurance. Long endurance races and adult rules for such games as basket ball should not be allowed. The bodies of these boys and girls are developing and growing in a very decided manner at this period, and therefore need material for growth. The various parts of their bodies should certainly not be subjected to the great strain which is likely to come from athletics improperly supervised.
The ideals of sportsmanship should be carefully presented. Players should learn quickly not to question decisions of officials. At the same time leaders and officials should endeavor to render careful, accurate, impartial and quick decisions. The importance of team play should be stressed. It is advisable to discuss with the class the faults found in the playing of the games, and suggestions should be elicited from the pupils as to possible improvement in their methods of playing. The use of a blackboard for outlining diagrams and discussing rules will be found most helpful.
The following tabulated list of suggestions in regard to the teaching of games may prove helpful to inexperienced teachers: