George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950
When George C. Marshall, the organizer of victory as Army Chief of Staff during World War II, became Secretary of State in January of 1947, he faced not only a staggering array of serious foreign policy questions but also a State Department rendered ineffective by neglect, maladministration, and low morale. Soon after his arrival Marshall asked George F. Kennan to head a new component in the department's structure--the Policy Planning Staff. In this major work Wilson Miscamble scrutinizes Kennan's subsequent influence over foreign policymaking during the crucial years from 1947 to 1950. Despite an already large literature on the origins of the Cold War, this exhaustively researched study casts new light on American foreign policy during the Truman administration: it clearly shows how policy was actually made. Neither a survey of Kennan's ideas nor a simple narrative of his activities devoid of context, it covers the wider spectrum of discussion and decision within the State Department and beyond. Miscamble argues that American foreign policy from 1947 to 1950 was not simply a working out of a clearly delineated strategy of containment. Far from dictating policies, the famous containment doctrine was formed by them in a piecemeal and pragmatic manner.
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Acheson Papers action Affairs ambassador American foreign policy American policy April argued assistance atomic August Author's interview Bevin Bohlen British China Cold War Committee Davies Dean Acheson December decision defense Department director discussions Eastern Europe economic efforts February forces Foreign Service formulation Forrestal FRUS George F George Kennan Germany Greece Henderson Hickerson HSTL implementation initial involvement issue Italy January Japan Jessup John John Lewis Gaddis July June Korean Korean War Lippmann MacArthur March Marshall Plan Marshall's Memoirs memorandum of conversation ment military Minutes of Meeting Moscow National Security Council negotiations Nitze North Atlantic Treaty November October Office operations Palestine Paul Nitze Policy Planning Staff policymakers political position PPS Records president problem proposal recommendations relations response Robert role Rusk Russian Secretary September Soviet Union strategic suggested tion Titoism Truman Papers United views Walter Lippmann Washington Western York