Temperament in Clinical Practice

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Guilford Press, May 1, 1995 - Psychology - 315 pages
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Pioneers in the systematic study of temperament in children, and its significance for pathological and normal development, Drs. Chess and Thomas have been conducting research in this area since 1956. While this volume addresses empirical and theoretical issues of the authors' work in this area, its emphasis is on presenting the ways in which the clinician can identify temperamental characteristics in diagnostic work'ups and how he or she can use this information for prevention and treatment of psychological disorders. This book is unique in its focus on the clinical use of knowledge about temperament, a subject which no other book addresses exclusively. The book is directed at the clinician in mental health ? the psychiatrist, psychologist, and social worker ? as well as the pediatrician, nurse, and educator. It may be used by experienced practitioners as well as trainees in the mental health fields.
 

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Contents

THE FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TEMPERAMENT
1
The Significance of Temperament
3
A Normal Extreme of Temperament
5
Exaggeration of a Temperamental Characteristic
7
Behavior Disorder Development
9
Goodness of Fit Control and Mastery versus the Controlling Parent or Child
11
The Goodness of Fit Model
12
Control and Mastery versus the Controlling Parent or Child
14
Prevention and Treatment General Considerations
148
Goodness of Fit as a Cardinal Principle
149
The Pediatrician and the Pediatric Nurse
152
Other Approaches to Parent Education
155
Staff Education
156
The Goals of Prevention
157
Parent Guidance
159
The Parent as a Therapeutic Ally
160

Parental Control versus the Controlling Parent
15
Mastery by the Child versus the Child Tyrant
20
Insight into Ones Own Temperament
22
Continuity of Temperament
23
Parental Reactions to the Childs Temperament
24
General Comments
25
The Easy Child
27
The Difficult Child
30
The SlowtoWarmUp Child
34
High Persistence and Low Distractibility
36
Low Persistence and High Distractibility
37
High and Low Activity Level
39
Other Temperamental Patterns
40
Summary
41
Temperament in Infancy
44
The Babys Impact on the Family
45
Nothing Is Forever
48
Planning Ahead
50
Relationships
54
Attachment and Detachment
56
Temperament in the Toddler Stage
58
Demands at the Toddler Stage
59
Laura and Billy
60
Entry to Nursery School
62
Temperament in Middle Childhood
72
The Latency Period Concept
76
Social Competence and Task Mastery
79
Development of Value Systems
81
Task Mastery
82
School Functioning
84
Temperament in Adolescence
86
School
88
Social Skills
91
Adolescence and Work
96
ParentChild Relationships
97
Temperament in Adult Life
101
Temperament and Adult Development
103
Temperament and SelfImage
104
Temperament and Intimate Personal Relationships
108
Insight into Ones Own Temperament
111
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
113
Obtaining Data on Temperament in Clinical Practice
115
The Parent Interview
118
The Playroom Session
126
The Direct Interview with an Older Child or Adolescent
134
Temperament Data in Adult Life
141
Temperament Data from Questionnaires
144
Other Sources of Temperament Data
146
Summary
147
Guidelines for Parent Guidance
161
The Boy Who Ran out of the Office
165
Parental Psychopathology and Parent Guidance
177
Details of Parent Guidance
182
Parent Guidance Successes
185
Parent Guidance Failures
187
Group Patient Guidance Sessions
189
Summary
190
Direct Treatment of Child and Adult
192
Treatment of the Parent
193
Treatment of the Young Child
195
Treatment of the Older Child and Young Adolescent
196
Treatment of the Older Adolescent and Adult
198
Temperament and the Various Psychiatric Syndromes
200
Can Temperament Change?
201
SPECIAL AREAS
203
Temperament and School Functioning
205
The Initial Adaptation to School
206
The Later Adaptation to School
209
Effect of the Childs Temperament on the Teacher
213
Summary
216
Temperament and Pediatric Practice
218
Differences between Pediatric and Psychiatric Management
219
Measuring Temperament in Pediatric Practice
224
Uses of Temperament Data in Pediatric Practice
226
Dealing with Difficult Temperament
228
The Persistent Confusion of Attention Deficit Disorder and Temperament
233
Criteria for Referral
236
Summary
238
Temperament and Nursing Practice
240
Temperament in WellBaby Care
241
Temperament and the School Nurse
244
Temperament in the Nursing Care of Sick Children
245
Summary
252
Temperament and the Handicapped Child
254
Persistence versus Perseveration
259
Other Temperamental Issues with the Handicapped Child
261
Summary
262
OVERVIEW
265
The Clinical Significance of Temperament
267
The Goodness of Fit Model
268
Difficult Temperament
269
Consistency of Temperament over Time
270
The Future
271
Temperamental Categories and Their Definitions
273
Consistency and Inconsistency of Temperament over Time
282
References
301
Index
307
Copyright

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About the author (1995)

Stella Chess, M.D, who received the Adolf Meyer Award in 1996 from the American Psychiatric Association, is Professor of Child Psychiatry at New York University Medical Center.
Alexander Thomas, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry at New York University Medical Center, served as Director of the Psychiatry Division of Bellevue Hospital from 1968 through 1978.
Well known for the New York Longitudinal Study of the role of termperament in normal and deviant child development, Drs. Chess and Thomas have been honored with numerous awards. Currently, they are consultants to the Temperament Program of the Kaiser Permanente Health Maintenance Organization.

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