Modern Astrometry

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 22, 2002 - Science - 376 pages
On the occasion ofthe second edition ofthe book, it appeared necessary to up date information that was already seven years old. Astrometry has recorded tremendous advances during these last years, so that, in addition to cor recting identified errors and misprints, there are many major modifications. Among the events that forced me to modify significantly the contents of the book, the most important are the release of the Hipparcos and Tycho cata logues, the introduction of CCD astrometry, the decision of the International Astronomical Union to adopt a new celestial reference frame, the dramatic improvement of accurate time and frequency standards, the decision taken by space agencies to prepare several new space astrometry satellites and the development of optical interferometry. The description and the consequences of these events have been included in this edition. One of them is that a mi crosecond of arc or microarcsecond (uas) has become a widely used unit. On the contrary, the result was also that the importance of some in struments such as astrolabes or transit circles has decreased. However, I left but because their description unchanged, not only for their historical interest, newer techniques often use similar data reduction methods so that one can refer to them. Conversely, some methods or instruments have evolved and new information is included. Finally, many new references were added to the original list.
 

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Contents

Presentation of Astrometry
1
12 Goals of Astrometry
2
121 Extragalactic Objects
3
123 Objects in the Solar System
5
124 EarthMoon System
6
125 Conclusion
7
13 Astrometric Techniques
8
132 Semiglobal Astrometry
9
721 Principle of the Danjon Prism Astrolabe
175
722 Principle of a Full Pupil Astrolabe
176
723 Description of a Full Pupil Astrolabe
177
724 The Mark 4 Astrolabe
180
725 Instrumental Parameters
181
73 Method of Equal Altitudes
182
731 Fundamental Formula
183
732 Observational Procedures
184

135 GroundBased or Space Astrometry?
10
Image Formation
11
211 Propagation of a Light Ray
12
213 Propagation of a Monochromatic Light Wave
13
214 Superposition Principle
15
221 Propagation of a Limited Plane Wave
16
222 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture
18
223 Point Spread Function of a Circular Aperture
19
224 Resolving Power
20
23 Coherence of Light
21
232 Coherence Time and Length
23
24 Instrumental Defects
24
242 Defocus
26
244 Coma
27
245 Astigmatism and Field Curvature
28
246 Distortion
29
247 Chromatic Aberration
30
248 Diffraction Chromatism
31
Atmospheric Effects on Image Formation
33
312 Spherical Atmosphere Approximation
34
313 Laplace Formula
36
314 Normal Refraction
38
316 Differential Refraction
39
32 Chromatic Refraction
40
323 Empirical Correction
41
324 Simplif1ed Empirical Correction
43
33 Refraction in Distance
44
332 Refraction of Radio Waves
45
34 Heterogeneity of the Atmosphere
48
342 Effects of Turbulence
50
343 Statistical Properties of a Turbulent Atmosphere
51
344 Wave Propagation in the Atmosphere
52
345 Seeing
53
346 Instantaneous Image
54
347 Resolving Power of Telescopes
56
348 Adaptive Optics
58
Reduction of Observations
61
411 Ideal Reference System
62
412 Reference Systems
63
414 Conventional Reference Frames
64
415 Change of Reference Coordinates
65
416 Application to Local Coordinates
67
417 Relation with the Celestial Reference Frame
68
418 New Intermediary System
70
419 Satellite Astrometry
71
422 Annual Parallax
74
423 Other Parallactic Corrections
75
424 Proper Motions
76
43 Optical Effects
77
432 Relativistic Light Deflection
79
433 Relativistic LightTime Delay
80
44 Reduction of Observations
81
441 Position of the Problem
82
442 Modelling
83
443 Calibration
84
452 Evaluation of Uncertainties
86
453 Method of Least Squares
87
454 Variance and Covariances in Least Squares
89
SmallField Astrometry
91
511 Telescopes for SmallField Astrometry
92
512 Properties of Photographic Plates
95
513 Image of a Star
99
514 Photographic Plate Measurements
101
515 Determination of Image Positions
102
516 Plate Reduction
103
517 Star Catalogues
107
52 Photoelectricity in Astrometry
109
522 CCD Receivers
110
523 CCD Calibration
112
524 CCD Astrometric Observations
113
525 CCD Scan Mode
114
53 GridModulation Astrometry
117
532 Reduction of a GridModulated Signal
118
533 Multichannel Astrometric Photometer
119
54 Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope
121
541 Description of the HST
122
543 Description of the Fine Guidance Sensors
124
544 Reduction of FGS Data in TransferFunction Mode
127
545 Reduction of FGS Data in Astrometric Mode
129
546 Astrometric Use of the WFPC
131
55 Radial Velocities
132
551 Spectroscopy
133
553 Objective Prism
135
Meridian Circles
139
612 Materialised Representation of Angles
140
62 The Meridian Circle
142
622 Description of the Meridian Circle
144
631 Right Ascensions
145
632 Collimation
146
633 Inclination of the Rotation Axis
147
634 Azimuth of the Rotation Axis
148
635 Calibration of the Instrumental Constants
149
636 Bessels Formula
150
637 Determination of Declinations
151
639 Flexure of the Tube
152
6311 Summary of Corrections in Declination
153
64 Micrometers
154
642 Oscillating Grid Micrometer
156
643 Use of an Image Dissector
161
644 CCD Micrometer
162
645 CCD Telescopes
163
651 Pulkovo Horizontal Meridian Circle
164
652 Axial Meridian Circles
165
66 Reduction of Meridian Observations
166
662 Global Reduction
167
663 Precision of Observations
169
Equal Altitude Instruments
171
711 Geometry of the Observation
172
712 Curvature of the Parallel
173
72 Description of Astrolabes
174
733 Determination of Instrumental Parameters
185
734 Determination of Star Positions
186
74 Solar Astrolabe
187
742 Description of the Multiprism Solar Astrolabe
189
743 Reduction of Observations
190
744 Variable Prism Solar Astrolabe
192
75 The Photographic Zenith Tube
193
Hipparcos
197
811 General Principle of Hipparcos
198
813 Input Catalogue
201
814 Nominal Scanning Law
203
816 Observing Strategy
204
817 Operation of the Satellite
205
818 Data Reduction
206
822 Transit Time on the StarMapper
208
823 GridtoField Transformation
209
824 Reference Great Circles
210
825 Attitude Determination
212
826 Representation of the Attitude
213
827 Main Grid Photon Counts
215
828 Main Grid Coordinates
216
829 Case of Double and Multiple Stars
218
83 Reduction on a Great Circle
219
832 Equations of Condition
220
833 Design Matrix and Solution
221
84 Astrometric Parameter Determination
223
842 Sphere Reconstitution
225
843 Astrometric Parameter Determination
227
86 Special Tasks
229
862 Hipparcos Photometry
231
863 Solar System Objects
232
864 Link to the Extragalactic Reference Frame
233
87 Hipparcos Final Catalogue
235
872 Contents of the Hipparcos Catalogue
236
88 Tycho
238
883 Star Identification
239
884 Equations for the Astrometric Parameters
240
885 Astrometric Parameter Determination
241
886 Tycho Catalogue
242
89 Tycho2 Catalogue
243
893 Tycho2 Catalogue
245
Very Small Field Astrometry
247
912 Michelson Interferometry
249
913 Fundamental Equation of Stellar Interferometry
251
914 Description of Interferometers
254
915 Double Star Observation
259
916 Interferometry of Extended Sources
261
917 Resolving Power of an Interferometer
265
92 Speckle Interferometry
267
922 Reduction in a Fourier Space
268
923 Operations
269
93 Occultations by the Moon
270
932 Application to Lunar Occultations
272
933 Observation of Occultations
273
934 Reduction of Observations
274
935 Precisions Achieved
276
Phase Interferometry
277
1012 Reduction of Observations
279
1013 Refraction Correction in the Mark III Interferometer
280
1014 Astrometry with the NPOI
282
1015 Astrometric Precision
283
102 Radio Interferometry
284
1022 Interferometry in Radio Waves
286
1023 Very Long Baseline Interferometry
288
1024 VLBI Data Reduction
290
1025 Observation of Stars by VLBI
292
1026 Space VLBI
293
Timing Techniques
295
1112 Quartz Oscillators
297
1113 Stimulated Emissions
299
1114 Caesium Atomic Frequency Standards
301
1115 Atomic Clocks
305
1116 Atomic Time Scales
307
112 Lasers
309
1122 Implementation for Telemetry
311
1131 Lunar Laser Ranging Equipment
313
1132 Photon Efficiency of Lunar Lasers
315
1133 Return Recognition and Data Reduction
317
1134 Satellite Laser Ranging
319
114 Global Positioning System
320
1141 Principle of the System
321
1143 Measurements with GPS Receivers
322
1144 Extensions
324
115 Planetary Radars
325
1152 Application to Planets
327
1153 Ranging to Asteroids
328
116 Pulsar Timing
329
1161 Timing Pulses
330
1162 Propagation Time of Pulsar Signals
332
1164 Astrometric Results
334
Future of Astrometry
337
1212 Stars
338
1213 Objects in the Solar System
339
122 Need for Better Astrometry
341
1221 Extragalactic Objects
343
1222 Stars
344
1223 The Galaxy
346
123 Space Global Astrometry Projects
347
1231 DIVA
348
1232 FAME
349
1233 GAIA
350
124 Space Interferometry
352
1242 Space VLBI
353
125 Prospects of GroundBased Astrometry
354
1252 Very Small Field Astrometry
355
126 As a Conclusion
356
References
359
Index
371
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