Salt Weathering Hazards
The hazards posed to engineering structures by salt weathering are increasing because of such diverse factors as the spread of irrigation and high levels of atmospheric pollution. Salt weathering is also a potent cause of rock decay and geomorphological change in polar, coastal and desert environments. The book discusses the reasons why the hazards are increasing and presents striking case studies from many parts of the world. It also discusses the nature and sources of different salts, the mechanisms that cause the deterioration of building materials and natural rock outcrops, the geomorphological processes of salt attack and their impact on landform development, and the strategies and techniques that are available to combat salt attack. The book is extensively illustrated and has a very comprehensive bibliography of the multi-disciplinary literature.
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Conclusions and conceptual framework
The Sphinx and other sites in Egypt
Sea walls at WestonSuperMare Avon UK
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A. S. Goudie areas Australia basins bloedite breakdown bricks brine burkeite calcite calcium sulphate capillary fringe capillary rise cause cement chemical cliff coastal concentrations concrete crystallisation pressures crystals cycles damage debris liberation decay deliquescence deposits desert different salts disintegration effective efflorescences environment environmental epsomite evaporation example experimental Figure granite groundwater groundwater levels gypsum halite hexahydrite hydration pressures important increase irrigation lakes limestone magnesium sulphate MgSO4 minerals mirabilite moisture monuments NaCl Namib NaNO3 Negev occur particles photograph by A. S. pores Portland precipitation presence produced range relative humidity Reproduced with permission rock surface rock types sabkha saline salt attack salt crystallisation salt efflorescences salt solution salt weathering salt weathering hazard samples sandstone saturated solutions shales simulations sodium carbonate sodium chloride sodium nitrate sodium sulphate soil soluble salts stone surface studies sulphur dioxide Table tafoni temperature thenardite trona Valley walls water-table weathering processes weight zone