Decentralization of the socialist state: intergovernmental finance in transition economies
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1995 - Business & Economics - 443 pages
World Bank Discussion Paper No. 271. This study incorporates data from comparable surveys across five African countries--Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, and Tanzania--to analyze how small and micro enterprises have been positively and negatively affected by policy liberalization schemes. Some grow rapidly by adapting their products, while others stagnate because of import competition and increased self- employment. Comparisons were made between small firms, with 6 to 49 workers, and microenterprises, with fewer than 6. The study suggests a two-pronged strategy: (1) to facilitate widespread participation in microenterprises, broad measures are needed to lower the costs of entry, generate demand for their goods and services, raise the educational level and incomes of the poor, and encourage informal financial institutions; (2) to stimulate growth of potentially dynamic enterprises, well-targeted measures may be appropriate to lower the costs of entry, increase access to credit, and provide demand-driven business services. Also available in French (ISBN 0-8213-3907-0) Stock No. 13907.
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Financing local government in Hungary
Intergovernmental fiscal relations in Bulgaria
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50 percent accountability Albania allocation areas assets autonomy borrowing Budapest budget budgetary Bulgaria capacity capital central government chapter collected costs countries deficit distribution districts efficiency enterprises enues ernment example expenditure assignment expenditure responsibilities extrabudgetary funds fees formula functions gmina gminy Hungary increase infrastructure intergovernmental fiscal investment jurisdictions level of government levied localities macroeconomic market economy ments Ministry of Finance municipalities natural resources normative grant own-source revenues ownership personal income tax Poland political population powiat privatization profit tax property tax public services rayons reform regime regional Republic resource rents revenue sources Romania Russia Russian Federation Self-Government sharing rates Soviet spending structure subnational governments subnational level subsidies subventions surcharge tax assignment tax base tax rates tax revenues tax sharing tion transfers transition economies U.S. dollar Ukraine urban value added tax World Bank