The Mass Audience: Rediscovering the Dominant Model
In the early 20th century, a new and distinctive concept of the audience rose to prominence. The audience was seen as a mass -- a large collection of people mostly unknown to one another -- that was unified through exposure to media. This construct offered a pragmatic way to map audiences that was relevant to industry, government, and social theorists. In a relatively short period of time, it became the dominant model for studying the audience. Today, it is so pervasive that most people simply take it for granted.
USE LAST TWO PARAGRAPHS ONLY FOR GENERAL CATALOGS... Recently, media scholars have reopened inquiry into the meaning of "audience." They question the utility of the mass audience concept, characterizing it as insensitive to differences among audience members inescapably bound up with discredited notions of mass society, or serving only a narrow set of industrial interests. The authors of this volume find that these assertions are often false and unwarranted either by the historical record or by contemporary industry practice.
Instead, they argue for a rediscovery of the dominant model by summarizing and critiquing the very considerable body of literature on audience behavior, and by demonstrating different ways of analyzing mass audiences. Further, they provide a framework for understanding the future of the audience in the new media environment, and suggest how the concept of mass audience can illuminate research on media effects, cultural studies, and media policy.
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The Concept of Mass Audience
Mass Audience Behavior
The Audience Commodity
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advertising aggregate analysis argued audi audience availability audience duplication audience factors audience ﬂow audience fragmentation audience members audience overlap audience polarization audience research audience theory Barwise broadcast cable penetration channel loyalty chapter characteristics commercial consumer correlation critical dayparts diverse double jeopardy economic effects model Ehrenberg ence feature of audience ﬁrst Goodhardt households independent variables individual inﬂuence inheritance effects interpretive communities large numbers Lazarsfeld levels of repeat Lichty marketplace model mass audience behavior mass audience concept mass audience thinking mass behavior mass media mass society media economics media effects media environment media offerings media policy media theory Nielsen Nielsen Media Research old media patterns of audience patterns of exposure Phalen policymakers popular culture predict preferences program choice program scheduling program type radio relationship repeat viewing result segments signiﬁcant social spiral of silence standard error stations structural factors television audience total audience VCRs viewers Wakshlag Wasteland speech Webster Wildman