Ladoga and Onego - Great European Lakes: Observations and Modeling

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 11, 2010 - Science - 308 pages

Lakes Ladoga and Onego are the greatest lakes in Europe. With a surface area of 17891 km2 and a volume of 902 km3, the former is one of the top fifteen world’s freshwater lakes and is only slightly smaller than Lake Ontario. Lake Onego’s surface area is 9600 km2 and it has a volume of 292 km3. The watershed of Lake Ladoga (258000 km2) extends through Northwestern European Russia and the eastern part of Finland, including the large Lakes Ilmen and Saimaa, and together these Great European Lakes are an important link in the Caspian-Baltic-White Sea waterway system. Their ecological state affects the water quality of the Neva River, the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. Thus any changes affect the operational use, environmental protection and management of water resources of a wide area and concern such issues as drinking, recreation, transport and energy.

The anthropogenic impact on the Lake Onego ecosystem is mostly determined by the sewage waters of the Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga industrial centres, while the river inflow makes the most impact on Lake Ladoga. Although the anthropogenic stress on the water ecosystems of the Great European Lakes has decreased over the last 15 years, there has been some simultaneous evidence of global warming. There is not enough current data to identify the climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems, but there is proof that the main cause of lacustrine ecosystem changes is determined by anthropogenic factors.

Coupled thermohydrodynamic and ecosystem models for Lakes Ladoga and Onego have been developed to study the contemporary situation, to understand the main mechanisms of the ecosystem transformation, and to learn what may happen in future under the varying antropogenic impact and climate changes. Lake Ladoga preserves its weak mesotrophic status while Lake Onego can be characterized as oligotrophic. Economic growth during the last seven years has led to the increasing anthropogenic impact on both their ecosystems.

The Great European Lakes are attracting the increasing attention of both researchers and end-users. This book is a synthesis of multifaceted interdisciplinary studies conducted by a team of experts in limnology, geography, biology, mathematical modeling and economy. The editors, Professors Rukhovets and Filatov, are the authors of numerous articles and books and are recognized as the foremost experts in their fields. Professor Rukhovets has been Director of the Institute of Economy and Mathematics in Saint-Petersburg and head of the laboratory of mathematical modeling since 1998 while Professor Filatov is currently Director of the Northern Water Problems Institute in Petrozavodsk, Russia.

 

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Contents

The Great European Lakes state of the art
1
12 HISTORY OF RESEARCH OF THE LAKES
9
13 CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPERATURE AND CURRENTS
14
132 Currents and circulations
23
14 THE CYCLE OF SUBSTANCES IN LAKE LADOGA AND THE DYNAMICS OF ITS WATER ECOSYSTEM
31
142 Phytoplankton in the Lake Ladoga ecosystem
33
143 Bacterioplankton water fungi and destruction processes
39
144 Zooplankton
41
422 Analysis of the results of simulations
155
Threedimensional ecosystem model of a large stratified lake
163
52 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM MATHEMATICAL MODEL
165
53 DISCRETE MODELS
168
531 Discretization of the solution domain
169
532 Reproduction of transport turbulent diffusion and the sedimentation of substances in the model
171
533 Reproduction of the transformation of substances
173
536 Changes in the discrete model with coarsening of the domain decomposition
175

145 The role of the zoobenthos in the ecosystem
42
146 Dissolved organic matter
44
147 The role of seston and bottom sediments in the lake phosphorus cycle
46
15 THE CYCLE OF SUBSTANCES IN LAKE ONEGO AND ITS WATER ECOSYSTEM
47
151 The phosphorus supply to the Lake Onego ecosystem
48
152 Biological communities in the Lake Onego eutrophication state
51
153 Relation between the primary production and the destruction of organic matter
59
154 Peculiarities of Lake Onego eutrophication
60
16 THE MAIN TENDENCIES IN THE EVOLUTION OF LARGE DEEP STRATIFIED LAKES
61
Hydrothermodynamics of large stratified lakes
66
STATE OF THE ART PROBLEM FORMULATION FOR THE SIMULATION OF LAKE HYDROTHERMODYNAMICS
69
222 Equations of geophysical hydrodynamics
70
23 A CLIMATIC CIRCULATION MODEL FOR LARGE STRATIFIED LAKES
73
232 Mathematical formulation
76
233 Realization of the model
78
234 Generalized formulations of the mathematical model
80
235 About the discrete model
83
Climatic circulation and the thermal regime of the lakes
85
32 ON THE PROBLEM OF SIMULATING CLIMATIC CIRCULATION
87
33 SETTING OF EXTERNAL FORCING
91
34 SIMULATION OF THE LAKE LADOGA CLIMATIC CIRCULATION
97
342 Description and analysis of thermal regime calculation results
99
343 Description and analysis of currents calculation results
112
35 SIMULATION OF THE LAKE ONEGO CLIMATIC CIRCULATION
122
353 The results of currents simulations
129
Estimation of the lakes thermohydrodynamic changes under the impact of regional climate change
133
412 Probable climate changes over the lakes catchments
138
413 Estimates of potential changes in the thermal regime of the lakes by 2050
143
42 MODELLING THE THERMOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE LAKES UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
150
Ecosystem models of Lakes Ladoga and Onego
178
62 COMPLEX OF LAKE LADOGA ECOSYSTEM MODELS
182
63 ECOSYSTEM MODEL FOR LAKE ONEGO BASED ON THE TURNOVER OF BIOGENS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
186
632 Mathematical formulation of the model
188
633 The discrete model
192
634 Reproduction of Lake Onego annual ecosystem functioning
197
64 LAKE LADOGA PHYTOPLANKTON SUCCESSION ECOSYSTEM MODEL
206
641 Formulation of the model
208
642 The discrete model
212
643 Model verification computation experiments
218
644 Reproduction of phytoplankton succession
219
Estimating potential changes in Lakes Ladoga and Onego under human and climatic impact
227
71 MODELLING CHANGES IN THE LAKE LADOGA ECOSYSTEM UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ANTHR...
228
712 Modelling changes in the ecosystem under different scenarios of climate change and changes in the level of anthropogenic loading
232
72 MODELLING CHANGES IN THE LAKE ONEGO ECOSYSTEM UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ANTHROP...
238
Lake Ladoga and Lake Onego models of fish communities
247
82 MODEL DESCRIPTION
249
83 THE MODELS STUDY
254
Natural resources of Lakes Ladoga and Onego and sustainable development of the region
260
92 ASSIMILATION POTENTIAL OF LAKE ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION
268
922 Assimilation potential of the natural environment
271
924 Economic quantification of assimilation potential
273
925 Mathematical economic model
274
926 Computational experiments
276
Conclusions
280
Afterword
281
References
283
Index
299
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About the author (2010)

Leond Aizikovich Rukhovets, professor, Doctor of Sciences, he started to work in Leningradean Branch of Steklov Mathematical Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences in 1959. In this Branch he worked during the period 1959-1965. The next periods 1965-1975,1975-1985 he was the scientific researcher in Lenigradean Branch of Central Institute of Mathematics and Economics, USSR Academy of Scieces and Leningradean Institute of Social and Economical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences correspondingly. During period 1986-1990 he worked in Limnological Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences at Leningrad. He received his doctor's degree in computational mathematics in 1970 from Leningradean Branch of Steklov Mathematical Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences. His dissertation was devoted to study the finite element method (FEM) for solution boudary value problems for differential equations with partial derivatives. Later the interest of his investigations was focused upon the computational geophysicalhydrodynamics, models of large lakes circulation, ecosystem models and its implementation in conservation and managemtnt of water resources. In 1990 he was awarded a Doctor of Sciences degree in physics and mathematics. Leonid Rukhovets is the author more than 130 scientific articles and eight books. He took part in conferences and was visiting scientist in Oceanology Institute of Poland Academy of Sciences (Poland,1989), in Finland (1995, 1996, 1998, 2003,2006), USA(1999), Danmark (1999), Estonia (2006), Canada (2007). From 1998 to present Leonid Rukhovets is working in Institute for Economics and Mathematics at St.Petersburg, RAS as Director of Instirute and a head of the laboratory of mathematical modelling. He is a professor of State Marine Technical University.

Nikolai Nikolaevich Filatov , professor, Ph.D., He start work in limnilogical institute, Academy of Sc. and received his doctorate in geography in 1975 from the State University in Leningrad , where he conducted investigations of currents in Large Lakes. He are working in the Institute for Lakes Research of the Russian (then USSR) Academy of Sciences from 1971-1988 y., where his research interests become focused upon limnological, hydrophisics , and remote sensing.. He was awarded a D.Sc. degree in 1991. He has authored more than 300 scientific articles and 10 books. Now he is working in Nortern Water Problems Instittute as Director of the institute and head of laboratory of Geographical. His research activities continue to be directed toward the remote sensing, limnology and phisics of inland waters. He was visiting scientist in Canada (1979,1990), Austria, in International institute for Applied system analysis(1977), Finland (1983,1990,1993,1995-2002), Sweden (1992,1996, 2001, 2004).He is proffesor of State Pedagogical university (Petrozavodsk), President of Karelian Geographical society.

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