The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935
James Anderson critically reinterprets the history of southern black education from Reconstruction to the Great Depression. By placing black schooling within a political, cultural, and economic context, he offers fresh insights into black commitment to education, the peculiar significance of Tuskegee Institute, and the conflicting goals of various philanthropic groups, among other matters.
Initially, ex-slaves attempted to create an educational system that would support and extend their emancipation, but their children were pushed into a system of industrial education that presupposed black political and economic subordination. This conception of education and social order--supported by northern industrial philanthropists, some black educators, and most southern school officials--conflicted with the aspirations of ex-slaves and their descendants, resulting at the turn of the century in a bitter national debate over the purposes of black education. Because blacks lacked economic and political power, white elites were able to control the structure and content of black elementary, secondary, normal, and college education during the first third of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, blacks persisted in their struggle to develop an educational system in accordance with their own needs and desires.
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academic Afro-American Alabama Alvord Armstrong Baldwin black children black colleges black education black high school black higher education black industrial black leaders black schools black southerners black students black teachers black workers black youth Booker Buttrick campaign classical liberal colored common schools county training schools curriculum Davison DuBois economic educa Education Board enrolled ex-slaves Fisk University Folder Fort Valley Freedmen's Bureau GEB Papers Georgia Hampton Institute Hampton-Tuskegee Harlan ibid ideology industrial education industrial philanthropists industrial training JRFP-FU Julius Rosenwald labor missionary Negro Education normal schools North Carolina northern philanthropists Ogden Orleans Peabody percent philanthropic planters political public high schools public school race racial Report Rosenwald Fund Rosenwald school rural black schools for black second crusade secondary schools Slater Fund slaves social southern black southern education southern white Southern Workman tion trustees Tuskegee Institute U.S. Government Printing Virginia W. E. B. DuBois Washington