## How to Make and Use Graphic Charts |

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abscissa actual amount average axes axis boiler brake horsepower calculated Calgary co-ordinates coal column construction corresponding cost curve decrease determined diagram diameter distance draw drawn efficiency Electrical World Engineering equal equation example factor figures formula free running give given graph graphic charts horizontal illustration increase indicate induction motor intersection isometric isopleth length load logarithmic logarithmic scale machine manufacturing material maximum method month motor necessary nomograph obtained operation output paper percentage period pipe plant plotted problem production profit pump quantity Railway ratio record revolutions per minute ruled paper scale schedule seam sheet shown in Fig shows slide rule slide-rule sodium oxide specific gravity speed square stack standard steam steel straight edge straight line tensile strength tion unit variables vertical line voltage

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Page 72 - If numerical data are not included in the diagram it is desirable to give the data in tabular form accompanying the diagram. 16. All lettering and all figures in a diagram should be placed so as to be easily read from the base as the bottom, or from the right-hand edge of the diagram as the bottom. 17. The title of a diagram should be made as clear and complete as possible. Sub-titles or descriptions should be added if necessary to insure clearness.

Page 71 - The general arrangement of a diagram should proceed from left to right. " 2. Where possible represent quantities by linear magnitudes, as areas or volumes are more likely to be misinterpreted.

Page 71 - ... 8. When curves are drawn on logarithmic coordinates, the limiting lines of the diagram should each be at some power of ten on the logarithmic scales. "9. It is advisable not to show any more coordinate lines than necessary to guide the eye in reading the diagram.

Page 71 - ... 3. For a curve, the vertical scale, whenever practicable, should be so selected that the zero line will appear on the diagram. 4. If the zero line of the vertical scale will not normally appear on the curve diagram, the zero line should be shown by the use of a horizontal break in the diagram.

Page 71 - The curve lines of a diagram should be sharply distinguished from the ruling. 11. In curves representing a series of observations, it is advisable, whenever possible, to indicate clearly on the diagram all the curves representing the separate observations.

Page 488 - Assumed Height of Stories. — From ground to first floor, 3 ft. Buildings 25 ft. wide, stories 13 ft. high. Buildings 50 ft. wide, stories 14 ft. high. Buildings 75 ft. wide, stories 15 ft. high. Buildings 100 ft. wide, stories 16 ft. high. Buildings 125 ft. wide, stories 16 ft. high.

Page 186 - New barges are, as a rule, used for rip-rap rock transportation, this service requiring a substantial craft. From the diagram it will be noted that during the sixth and seventh years the barges required extensive repairs, the cost ranging from $200 to $300 per barge; that with repairs costing about $75 per year they continued in hard service to the tenth or twelfth year; that they then required large repairs and had to be taken from rock work and placed in the brush carrying service, which is much...

Page 483 - ... chart and move down until this line intersects the line corresponding to the proper length factor; then move either right or left until the line corresponding to the given material is met; then move down again to the scale of plies, where the next largest figure will give the correct number of plies. For example : To find the correct number of plies for a conveyor belt 36 in. wide and 300 ft. long, with 20 ft. difference in elevation; handling sand and gravel: Follow the line from the 36-in....

Page 487 - If the building were 240 feet by 125 feet its cost would be about 66 cents a square foot. 2. The diagrams show that the minimum cost per square foot is reached with a four story building. A three story building costs a trifle more than a four story. A one story building is the most expensive. This is due to a combination of several features. a. The cost of ordinary foundations does not increase in proportion to the number of stories, and therefore their cost is less per square foot as the number...

Page 487 - The roof is the same for a one story building as for one of any other number of stories, and therefore its cost relative to the total cost grows less as the number of stories increases. c. The cost of columns, including the supporting piers and castings, does not vary much per story as the stories are added. d. As the number of stories increases, the cost of the walls, owing to increased thickness, increases in a greater ratio than the number of stories, and this item is the one which in the four...