Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Marito H. Garcia, Alan Pence, Judith Evans
World Bank Publications, Jan 18, 2008 - Business & Economics - 556 pages
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Early childhood, from birth through school entry, was largely invisible worldwide as a policy concern for much of the twentieth century. Children, in the eyes of most countries, were 'appendages' of their parents or simply embedded in the larger family structure. The child did not emerge as a separate social entity until school age (typically six or seven). 'Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa' focuses on the 130 million children south of the Sahel in this 0-6 age group. This book, the first of its kind, presents a balanced collection of articles written by African and non-African authors ranging from field practitioners to academicians and from members of government organizations to those of nongovernmental and local organizations. 'Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge' compiles the latest data and viewpoints on the state of Sub-Saharan Africa's children. Topics covered include the rationale for investing in young children, policy trends in early childhood development (ECD), historical perspectives of ECD in Sub-Saharan Africa including indigenous approaches, new threats from HIV/AIDS, and the importance of fathers in children's lives. The book also addresses policy development and ECD implementation issues; presents the ECD programming experience in several countries, highlighting best practices and challenges; and evaluates the impact of ECD programs in a number of countries.

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Figure 16 SubSaharan Africa Is the Only Region in the World Where the Number of Orphans is Growing
Figure 17 The Number of AIDS Orphans in SubSaharan Africa Skyrocketed between 1990 and 2003 and Is Projected to Continue to Do So
Figure 18 The Association Is Positive between Preprimary Enrollment and Primary Completion Rates
Table 13 Higher Preprimary Gross Enrollment Rates Are Associated with Lower Repetition Rates
Table 31 Status of Millennium Development Goals by Region
Table 32 Preschool Primary Education and Proportion of Children Underweight by World Region CountryWeighted Averages
Table 33 Gross Enrollment Ratio GER in Standard Preschool Proportion of Children Under 5 That Are Underweight and Under5 and Infant Mortalit...
Table 34 Evolution in Preschool GER by Region 199099 and Projection of the Trend to 2015
Figure 31 Grade Repetition Rate in Primary Education and Preschool Coverage
Figure 32 Survival Rate to Primary Grade 5 and Preschool Coverage
Figure 34 The Hypothesized Relationship between Preschool Learning Repetition and Survival to Primary Grade 5
Figure 35 The Effect of Preschool on Repetition Rates R2 and Survival Using Bivariate Data Analysis
Table 36 Simulation of the Grade Repetition Rate and Survival Rate to Grade 5 according to Preschool Coverage in 24 SSA Countries
Figure 41 The Relationship between Life Expectancy and Proportion of the Population at Low Literacy Levels in Developed Countries
Figure 42 Socioeconomic Gradients for Literacy Scores
Table 51 Annual Costs of Programs to Mitigate the Household Impacts of AIDS in KageraTanzania
SECTION 2 Sociohistorical Contexts
Figure 81 Fathers Absent and Deceased
Table 81 Fathers Alive and Resident by Expenditure Patterns in South Africa
SECTION 3 Policy Development
SECTION 4 Programming
Table 121 Students Training to Be ECD Teachers in Zimbabwe
Figure 131 The Path from Exclusion to Inclusion for Special Education Needs SEN in Mauritius
Figure 132 Goals to Absorb More Children in the Educational Systems in Mauritius 200408
Figure 133 Goals to Provide Educational Services for All Children with Disabilities in Mauritius by 2015
Table 151 Policy Environment in Ghana Malawi RwandaTanzania and Zambia
Figure 201 Learning Environment Scores in MRC and NonMRC Preschools in Kenya Uganda and Zanzibar
Figure 202 Rate of Change in Cognitive Measures of Children in Preschool and Those at Home
Table 221 18 Countries in the UNICEFESAR Implementing the IMCI Household and Community Component in at Least Three Districts
Box 221 Key Family and Community Practices to Promote Child Survival Growth and Development Complete List of 17 Core and 2 Additional ESA...
Figure 221 Children Exclusively Breastfed up to Age 6 Months in Five ESAR Programs before and after Intervention
Figure 222 Children Breastfed within One Hour of Delivery in Three ESAR Programs before and after Intervention
Figure 223 Children Supplemented with Vitamin A in Six ESAR Programs before and after Intervention
Table 222 Access to Sanitation Facilities Clean Water Sources and Handwashing Facilities in Five ESAR Programs before and after Interventions
Figure 224 Children Age 1223 Months Immunized for Measles in Five ESAR Programs before and after Intervention
Figure 225 Children Age 059 Months Who Slept under a Bednet the Night Previous to Study in Three ESAR Programs before and after Intervention
Table 223 Caregivers Giving Food and Fluids ORT during Diarrhea in Five ESAR Sites
Figure 226 Caregivers Giving Food and Fluids ORT to Children during Fever and Acute Respiratory Infection ARI in Ntungamo District Uganda bef...
Table 224 Caregiver Reasons for Delaying Care Seeking for Sick Children in Malawi Implementing Sites
Table 225 Changes in Reported Practices That Are Likely to Have the Greatest Impact on Preventing Childhood Deaths
SECTION 6 Challenges and Ways Forward
Table 231 Selected Data on the Cost of Public Preschool and Primary School in Four Countries
Table 232 Simulation of the Survival Rate to Grade 5 and Repetition Rate according to Preschool Coverage in 24 SubSaharan African Countries
Table 233 PerChild Public Spending in Public and CommunityBased Preschool Programs in Four Countries
Elements That Contribute to Defining an ECD Policy
Table 235 Unit Cost Policy Box for Fully and Partly Subsidized Systems for the 03 Population
Table 236 Unit Cost Policy Box for Fully and Partly Subsidized Systems for the 45 Population
Table 237 Costing Model for GovernmentFunded ECD Programs
Table 241 First Second and Third African International Conferences on ECD Compared by Size and Scope

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Page 270 - States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child.
Page 27 - HDI is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development - a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living, measured by the GDP per capita in PPP).
Page 379 - Significant at the 10 percent level. ** Significant at the 5 percent level. *** Significant at the 1 percent level.
Page 417 - We want to be part of the solution, not part of the problem, and we suggest that, this is a way to do it.
Page xxix - Programme Unesco United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund...
Page 270 - Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
Page 89 - PW (2000) Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress in primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97: 6079-6084.
Page 456 - WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Infant Mortality. Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis.
Page 415 - Supra-national human rights instruments for the protection of children in Africa: The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child" 31 Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa (1998) 199-212 Viljoen, FJ "Application of the African Charter on Human and Peoples...
Page 33 - States Parties to the present Charter shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate harmful social and cultural practices affecting the welfare, dignity, normal growth and development of the child and in particular: (a) those customs and practices prejudicial to the health or life of the child; and (b) those customs and practices discriminatory to the child on the grounds of sex or other status.

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