Microbial Ecology: Organisms, Habitats, Activities

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Jul 29, 1988 - Nature - 308 pages
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The rapid expansion od industry and the excessive demands made on limited natural resources have caused genuine concern at all levels of society. In the past this concern has concentrated on plants and animals and their relationships with their environments, but now attention is also turning towards microorganisms whose role is crucial to so many natural processes - from global life and mineral cycles through to the production of beer and milk products. After a brief introduction to microbiology this book concentrates on the ecological aspects of microbial life covering a wide variety of topics including structure, behaviour, growth, dispersal, interactions and how microbes act as symbionts and pathogens. Such a wide-ranging interdisciplinary approach will appeal to undergraduate and graduate students of microbiology, plant and animal ecology, agronomy, forestry and environmental sciences. Professionals working in the same fields will also find it informative as will those working in plant pathology and soil, aquatic, medical and food microbiology.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
The microbial world A brief introductory review
4
The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
5
The prokaryotic microorganisms
10
The eukaryotic microorganisms
12
Taxonomy
13
Chemical composition of microbial cells
16
Nutritional types
18
Microbes at low nutrient concentration
144
Microbes at extreme hydrostatic pressure
145
Books
146
Articles
147
Structure behaviour and growth of microorganisms as related to the environment
152
Spores cysts storage materials
153
Cell behaviour and environment
154
Buoyancy
155

Physiology of growth
19
Growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
22
Microbial metabolism and regulation
24
Energyconsuming processes
42
Fixation of molecular N₂
44
Metabolic regulation
46
Isolation cultivation identification
49
Direct isolation
51
Isolation following enrichment
52
Media cultivation
54
Preservation
56
Articles
58
Characterization and occurrence of the major groups of microorganisms
61
Phototrophic bacteria
64
The chemotrophic prokaryotes
68
The sheathed bacteria
70
The budding andior appendaged bacteria
71
The spirochetes
75
Some helical and curved bacteria
77
The pseudomonads and related bacteria
79
Some dinitrogenfixing bacteria
80
Physiologically defined assemblages of bacteria
81
Obligately chemolithotrophic bacteria
84
Aerobic Gramnegative bacteria of medical importance
87
Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae
88
Facultatively anaerobic Gramnegative rodshaped bacteria
92
Anaerobic Gramnegative rodshaped bacteria
94
Gramnegative cocci and related bacteria
95
Grampositive cocci
96
Grampositive asporogenous rodshaped bacteria
98
Endosporeform bacteria
99
The coryneform bacteria
101
The actinomycetes
102
Some obligately symbiotic bacteria
103
Cell walldeficient bacteria
104
Eukaryotic microorganisms
106
The microalgae
107
The protozoa
109
Books
110
Articles
111
The natural environments of microorganisms
114
The terrestrial environment
116
Physicochemical conditions affecting microorganisms
119
Substrates for microbial growth
120
Abundance distribution and survival of microorganisms
123
Macro and microhabitats
126
Surfaces and gradients as habitats
127
The aquatic environment
129
Substrates for microbial growth
131
Abundance distribution and survival of microorganisms
132
Growth at interfaces and gradients
136
Extreme environments
137
Microbes at low water potential
138
Microbes at extreme temperatures
140
Microbes at extreme pH values
142
Attachment to surfaces
156
Microbial growth as affected by environmental factors
158
Range of temperature
163
Range ofpH
165
Oxidationreduction potential
167
Books
168
Articles
169
Dispersal of microorganisms and development of microbial populations
172
Dispersal
174
Development of microbial populations
175
Population growth
176
Natural selection
177
Adaptation
180
Interactions
182
Microbemicrobe interactions
184
Antagonisms
187
Interactions between microorganisms and plants The phyllosphere
191
Mycorrhiza
192
Root nodule systems
194
Plant pathogens
197
Interactions between microorganisms and animals
198
Microbes as symbionts
200
Microbes as pathogens
204
Books
210
Articles
211
Microbial activities of ecological significance
215
The carbon cycle
217
Degradation of organic matter
220
Degradation of fossil fuels
229
The nitrogen cycle
232
Ammonification
234
Nitrification
235
Denitrification
236
Dinitrogen fixation
239
The sulphur cycle
241
The phosphorus cycle
247
Transformations of other ions
249
Calcium
250
Silicon and other elements
251
The role of microorganisms in the degradation of manmade compounds
252
Pesticides
254
Synthetic polymers
259
Other recalcitrant chemicals
260
Books
262
Methods used for the study of microorganisms in their natural environments
269
Types numbers and distribution of microorganisms
271
Books and Articles
272
Microbial biomass
273
Books and articles
274
Growth rates and activities
276
Books and articles
278
Epilogue
282
Index
284
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