World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment
This is the fifteenth in the annual series assessing major development issues. The World Development Report 1992 explores the links between economic development and the environment. The 1990 report on poverty, last year's report on development strategies, and this report constitute a trilogy on the goals and means of development. The main message of this year's report is the need to integrate environmental considerations into development policymaking. The report argues that continued, and even accelerated, economic and human development is sustainable and can be consistent with improving environmental conditions, but that this will require major policy, program, and institutional shifts. A twofold strategy is required. First, the positive links between efficient income growth and the environment need to be aggressively exploited. Second, strong policies and institutions need to be put in place which cause decision makers to adopt less damaging forms of behavior. Where tradeoffs exist between income growth and environmental quality, the report argues for a careful assessment of the costs and benefits of alternative policies. This approach will result in much less environmental damage. Like its predecessors, this report includes the World Development Indicators, which offer selected social and economic statistics on 125 countries.
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a false dichotomy
Environmental priorities for development
Markets governments and the environment
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additional Africa agencies agricultural air pollution annual Arab areas Asia average Bangladesh benefits better capita carbon cause Chapter China cities conservation consumption costs damage demand developing countries dioxide dollars East economic effects efficiency emissions energy environment environmental estimates Europe example farmers fertility Figure forests fuels global growth High-income human important improved income increase India indicators industrial institutions International investment Italy land lead less levels low-income measures ment Mexico Middle middle-income million natural Note OECD Panama percent plants policies pollution poor population practices problems production programs reduce regions regulations Report require responsible result rise rural sanitation sector soil sources South standards Table technical technologies tion trade United urban Washington wastes World Bank