European Jewry and the First Crusade
One of the unanticipated results of the First Crusade in 1095 was a series of violent assaults on major Jewish communities in the Rhineland. Robert Chazan offers the first detailed analysis of these events, illuminating the attitudes that triggered the assaults as well as the beliefs that informed Jewish reactions to them.
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The Growth and Development of Northern European Jewry
The Sources and Their Reliability
The Jewish Sources
The Violence of 1096
A Closer Look
Related Economic Issues
Glances Backward and Forward
1096 as a Watershed
1096 as a Portent of Things to Come
NewStyle Persecution and NewStyle Martyrdom
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Abraham Albert of Aix ancestors anti-Jewish violence archbishop army Ashkenazic Jewry assaults attacks avenge Behold bishop blessed blood burghers Chazan Christendom Christian Church Cologne courtyard creativity Creator Crucified crusading bands death depiction Deut efforts Eidelberg eleventh century Emicho emperor enemy European Jewry events of 1096 Gesta Gesta Treverorum Habermann halachic hands heard heaven Hebrew chronicles Hebrew First-Crusade chronicles heroism holy incident Isaac Israel Jerusalem Jewish behavior Jewish chroniclers Jewish community Jewish history Jewish martyrs Jewish sources Jews Josippon Judah Kalonymous killed King late eleventh likewise lives Lord Mainz major martyrs of 1096 Moses Muslims Name narratives neighbors northern Europe northern European noted Otto of Freising papal period persecution pious Rabbi radical reflected religious remained Rhineland Rhineland Jews saintly Second Crusade Sefer sense slaughtered souls Speyer sword synagogue Talmud tion took Torah Tosafists town twelfth century wish women Worms young