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of one of his own etchings—it would be interesting to determine what, in general, were the relationships between the two crafts. That Dtirer and his art exercised a considerable influence on the arts of the German and Italian Renaissance during the last quarter of the fifteenth century, still more up to the time of his death in 1528, and even afterwards, is, of course, unquestioned. The studio or workshop of Wohlgemut is of considerable importance in the history of our subject, and here Dtirer was apprenticed in 1486 as to the best master of painting of the day. Then he travels extensively for his wanderjdhre—to Italy, as far as Venice, to Colmar, Augsburg, Innsbruck, the Tyrol, Trent, Basel, Strassburg—before establishing himself in his native city, Ntirnberg, at that time the centre of German art. The first years of the sixteenth century take him again to Italy for a long residence, and there he enjoys the society and friendship of the great Italian painters, engravers, and sculptors: of Raphael, Bellini, Mantegna, and Marc Antonio. More years pass before his visit to the Netherlands in 1520 brings about a decided influence in his change of style. But it is almost the close of his life. Adam Krafft is dead (1509): Veit Stoss and Riemenschneider die within a year of each other (1530-1531), the one at the age of 90, the other over 70. Dtirer's influence is, again, markedly strong in the work of the boxwood carvers and medallionmakers. Amongst these he had the greatest admiration for Conrad Meit. It is not only on honestone reliefs and boxwood medallions that the Dtirer cypher,

the famous ^ adopted by him in 1497, so frequently

calls for explanation. The imperial gallery at Vienna possesses the admirable carved wood frame for the great picture known as the ' All Saints,' or the Adoration of the Trinity, and it bears this cypher. As Thausing says, in his Life of Diirer, 'There can be no doubt that Diirer superintended the carving, rule and compasses in hand. For who at Niirnberg but himself could have designed anything which so completely breathes the spirit of the antique . . . the spirit of classical forms?' Within the panel of the tympanum appears, in high relief, the Saviour, as Judge of the world, between the Virgin and St. John: at each end are angels in the round, blowing trumpets, and there was another, now missing, at the top. Sculptures in wood, ivory, and honestone, bearing the monogram are numerous. This, decorative in itself, was easily forged, if, indeed, the term may be applied, and that it was not used, in some cases at least, by permission. The British Museum possesses the honestone relief of the birth of John the Baptist, now generally attributed to Georg Schweiger, who would seem to be the author of many others. The Pierpont Morgan collection has the famous honestone Venus Kallipyge, for which it would seem certain that Diirer made the drawings, two of which now remain: one in a MS. volume in the Dresden royal library, the other in the collection of Professor Blasius at Brunswick. But the relief itself may be the work of Hans Daucher. In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a small pearwood panel, acquired in 1858, with the 'Judgment of Paris' in low relief, bearing the monogram in the foreground of the landscape. Bartsch describes the etching by Diirer from which this was copied {Peintre graveur, vii. 134), but as without the monogram. A boxwood panel in the Morgan collection is after a woodcut by Hans Burgkmair. In the Vienna Imperial Museum are two round boxes in boxwood with portrait reliefs which are free copies from Diirer's ' Frederic the Wise of Saxony': within is written in pencil 'fyt Stoss den elder,' an attribution no doubt of some early critic. A small walnut panel in the Kensington Museum is a copy, with slight differences, from the lower half of a well-known painting of the Rhenish school of the fifteenth century, the ' Paradise' picture in the Frankfurt Museum. Martin Schongauer and Hans Sebald Beham were, amongst other masters of the upper German schools, simply mines from which to extract ideas and turn them into sculpture. From these the adapters took especially the fashion and fall of the draperies and the angular folds in which they delighted. Schongauer was perhaps more drawn upon than any other. Wohlgemut copied many of his engravings, and even the small boxwood statuettes of the Madonna—there is an example in the Kensington Museum—are sometimes, as this one is, practically copied from his work. Riemenschneider's altarpiece in the Marienkirche at Salzwedel is from a Schongauer etching: and the Madonnas in glories of flames, what are they but direct imitations of the little German masters of the fifteenth century? The boxwood medallions to be noticed in a succeeding chapter, even in the case of such artists as Daucher and Haguenauer, are sometimes copied from paintings. For example, the portrait by Haguenauer of Henry Vt11. is after Holbein's miniature at Windsor, and the 'Alchemy' and ' Grammar,' in the Louvre, are of Diirer inspiration, tempered by Italian influences. So again, we have the panels with the triumph of Maximilian by Daucher, after Diirer. All this, no doubt, in some cases is legitimate enough, and the transcription is often admirable, and comparable in a certain sense to the masterly work of the line engraver or etcher who translates into tones of black and white the colour of a painting. On the other hand, the literal rendering of a black and white engraving —so far as it can be called literal—by the contours of a sculptural relief approaching the round, or in the round itself, is contrary to the character of the two arts, and leads to abuses of which examples are but too frequent. CHAPTER VI


IT is to be regretted that we are in possession of so few names of importance which can be attached to the crowd of sculptured work still remaining in the churches throughout the country, or now transferred to many museums and private collections in Germany and elsewhere. At the same time it must be repeated that the merit is very unequal. There are masterpieces, but there is also a vast quantity of poor work which has little call for notice beyond its curiosity value and the sentiment which may attach to the subject, or local interest. Concerning such things monographs are not wanting. The number of artists, and of work, of the first class to which it is necessary to refer in any detail, is therefore restricted: limited, in fact, to hardly more than half-a-dozen names during the last century of Gothic art and the transition. Of the later date, the workers in boxwood and the medallionists will furnish a separate chapter. What we shall be concerned with is almost exclusively religious art in the form of retables and altarpieces, and the statuettes and groups which in many cases were made for them. But, when all is said and done, there still remains the greatest doubt to whom, amongst those named, we can definitely assign certain of the most important pieces. Signed work is of the extremest rarity, and documentary evidence almost wholly wanting. We are ignorant even of the birthplaces and dates of birth of Veit Stoss or of Riemenschneider.

The pervading similarity of style and technique, outside the exceptional pieces which will be selected, has already been noticed. It must be borne in mind that these men worked also in stone or bronze, and we must be prepared to find that in many cases the methods and actual technique of the sculpture in stone and wood are almost indistinguishable. In addition, painter and sculptor were in Germany, as elsewhere, intimately connected and dependent on each other. Workshops and schools existed which were controlled or directed by such masters as Wohlgemut, and work turned out commercially to order. Imitation and copying from the masters of engraving were rife, and if there were certain mannerisms they were often those which were fashionable, and common alike to the graphic and plastic arts. Nothing would be more satisfactory than, could we but do so, to feel that we could distinguish a Riemenschneider by a mannerism in style or execution which could be called peculiar to him and to no other. We can get near this, it is true, as will be shown later on, but no further. Probably the masters of the boxwood models for medals, or for figures, did not confine themselves to this small sculpture alone, but, at least in their earlier days, would have had a practical acquaintance with, and have worked in the large ateliers whence proceeded the great altarpieces of Creglingen or of Schwabach. Doubtless there were boxwood carvers before Hans Schwarz. But with him we are brought to the beginnings of the Reformation, when the disuse of images, or at least the demand for them, must have greatly diminished. Yet the zeal of the iconoclasts does not appear to have affected Germany

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