Common Sense, Science and Scepticism: A Historical Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge
Can we know anything for certain? Dogmatists think we can, sceptics think we cannot, and epistemology is the great debate between them. Some dogmatists seek certainty in the deliverances of the senses. Sceptics object that the senses are not an adequate basis for certain knowledge. Other dogmatists seek certainty in the deliverances of pure reason. Sceptics object that rational self-evidence is no guarantee of truth. This book is an introductory and historically-based survey of the debate, siding for the most part with scepticism to show that the desire to vanquish it has often led to doctrines of idealism or anti-realism. Scepticism, science and common sense produce another view, fallibilism or critical rationalism: although we can have little or no certain knowledge, as the sceptics maintain, we can and do have plenty of conjectural knowledge. Fallibilism incorporates an uncompromising realism about perception, science, and the nature of truth.
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Scepticism under attack
Scepticism regarding the senses
Ideaism appearance and reality
Primary and secondary qualities
ideaism becomes idealism
ideaism becomes irrationalism
Countering Hume on induction
The rationalist alternative
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Common Sense, Science, and Scepticism: A Historical Introduction to the ...
No preview available - 1993
accept actually analytic answer appearance argued arithmetic axiom of parallels Berkeley Berkeley's Bread nourished claim colours common-sense concepts conclusion contradiction criterion critical critical rationalism critical rationalist Descartes Descartes's dogmatist emeralds are green empiricism empiricist Euclid Euclid's axiom Euclidean geometry example exist external objects fallibilism fallibilist false formulate generalisation hallucination human Hume Hume's hypothesis idea-ism idea-ist idealism ideas or sense-data inductive arguments inductive reasoning inductive validity infinite regress innate justified true belief Kant Kant's language laws liar paradox Locke Locke's logical material objects mathematical means metaphysical mind naive realism nature non-Euclidean geometries perceive perception philosophers pink rats Popper possible posteriori prediction premises principle problem proof proposition propositional knowledge prove question rationalism rationalist realism refute sceptical objection secondary qualities self-evident sensations sense-experience senses sentence Sextus Sextus Empiricus solipsism stimuli straight suppose synthetic a priori Tarski theorems theory of truth things valid word
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