From Religious Empires to Secular States: State Secularization in Turkey, Iran, and Russia

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Routledge, Mar 26, 2014 - Political Science - 202 pages

In the 1920s and the 1930s, Turkey, Iran and Russia vehemently pursued state-secularizing reforms, but adopted different strategies in doing so. But why do states follow different secularizing strategies? The literature has already shattered the illusion that secularization of the state has been a unilinear, homogeneous and universal process, and has convincingly shown that secularization of the state has unfolded along different paths. Much, however, remains to be uncovered.

This book provides an in-depth comparative historical analysis of state secularization in three major Eurasian countries: Turkey, Iran and Russia. To capture the aforementioned variation in state secularization across three countries that have been hitherto analyzed as separate studies, Birol Başkan adopts three modes of state secularization: accommodationism, separationism and eradicationism. Focusing thematically on the changing relations between the state and religious institutions, Başkan brings together a host of factors, historical, strategic and structural, to account for why Turkey adopted accommodationism, Iran separationism and Russia eradicationism. In doing so, he expertly demonstrates that each secularization strategy was a rational response to the strategic context the reformers found themselves in.

 

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Contents

The Secular State and Its Three Types
1
Religion and the Ottoman Empire
24
3 Accommodationist State Secularization in Republican Turkey
51
Religion and the Imperial State in Iran
73
5 Separationist State Secularization in Pahlavi Iran
95
Religion and the Russian Empire
109
7 Eradicationist State Secularization in the Soviet Union
132
The Fates of Three Models of Secular States
146
Appendix
163
References
183
Index
199
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About the author (2014)

Birol Başkan is an assistant professor of government at Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar. He holds a PhD in political science from Northwestern University. His research looks at state-regime-religion relations in the Middle East.

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