## Tools for Thought: How to Understand and Apply the Latest Scientific Techniques of Problem SolvingDrawing on general systems theory, operations research, cybernetics, futures research, and catastrophe theory, a distinguished geneticist provides the general reader with tools for perceiving and solving today's complex economic, social, and ecological pr |

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Page 99

However, even without mathematics, by thinking in terms of attractor surfaces in

three dimensions, we can get some notions about the types of stability which may

be exhibited by systems in which there are many more than three

controlled simultaneously. We shall use this type of imagery when we go on to

discuss more complex systems. Before doing that, it is necessary to mention

some other types of end-states which terminating systems may eventually reach.

FIG.

However, even without mathematics, by thinking in terms of attractor surfaces in

three dimensions, we can get some notions about the types of stability which may

be exhibited by systems in which there are many more than three

**variables**beingcontrolled simultaneously. We shall use this type of imagery when we go on to

discuss more complex systems. Before doing that, it is necessary to mention

some other types of end-states which terminating systems may eventually reach.

FIG.

Page 207

Which type is appropriate for the investigation of any particular situation depends

on how much is known about the real-world situation and how much

simplification of the real world is considered acceptable. In addition,

consideration of the resources of time, skill and money available for building the

model should be made. Models may be used to describe a situation at a given

point in time. These are called descriptive models. Or, if they contain time-

dependent

Which type is appropriate for the investigation of any particular situation depends

on how much is known about the real-world situation and how much

simplification of the real world is considered acceptable. In addition,

consideration of the resources of time, skill and money available for building the

model should be made. Models may be used to describe a situation at a given

point in time. These are called descriptive models. Or, if they contain time-

dependent

**variables**, they may be ...Page 208

Of course measurements of demand for some facility are dependent upon

Mathematical models and computer simulations of human behaviour have been

developed and applied, apparently with reasonable success, to the prediction of

voting behaviour in American presidential elections. Such models are based on

empirical rules of human behaviour, drawn from common experience and

experimental ...

Of course measurements of demand for some facility are dependent upon

**variables**such as human preferences and the oddities of individual behaviour.Mathematical models and computer simulations of human behaviour have been

developed and applied, apparently with reasonable success, to the prediction of

voting behaviour in American presidential elections. Such models are based on

empirical rules of human behaviour, drawn from common experience and

experimental ...

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A. N. Whitehead actually alternative atoms attractor surface become behaviour biological C. H. Waddington cent chreod Club of Rome complex systems components course curve deal diagram discussed effect epigenetic landscape estimates example experience exponential growth factors feed-back flats future Games Theory genes give graph happen hierarchical homeorhesis human ideas important increase Information Theory input instance interactions involved kind large number lock-in mathematical means measure move natural resources operational research organized particular pattern pay-off table perhaps philosophy pollution population possible practical Prisoner's Dilemma problem processes produce relations relevance tree schismogenesis scientific method scientists sequence shape simple simulation situation sort stability statistics step strategy structure symmetry techniques technological Theory things tion Tools for Thought turn types U-Boats usually values variables Venn diagram whole worm