The Act of Creation
Astudy of the processes of discovery, invention, imagination and creativity in humor, science, and the arts. It lays out Koestler's attempt to develop an elaborate general theory of human creativity. From describing and comparing many different examples of invention and discovery, Koestler concludes that they all share a common pattern which he terms "bisociation" - a blending of elements drawn from of two previously unrelated matrices of thought into a new matrix of meaning by way of a process involving comparison, abstraction and categorization, analogies and metaphors. He regards many different mental phenomena based on comparison (such as analogies, metaphors, parables, allegories, jokes, identification, role-playing, acting, personification, anthropomorphism etc.), as special cases of "bisociation".
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abstract activity aesthetic ahnost analogy animal Archimedes Aristotle artist aspect astronomy automatized awareness basic become behaviour Behaviourists bisociative blocked matrix catharsis cell centre century child chimpanzees colour comic complex concept conscious context creative Darwin derived Descartes discovery dream eidetic image electric emotions environment example experience experimental eyes fact function Galileo genetic genetic code Gestalt habit hierarchy human Ibid idea individual input insight Kepler kind latent learning laughter learning logical magic magnetism mathematical matrix means mechanism mental mind morphogenesis motion muscle nature nervous system normal object organism original Pasteur pattern perceptual physics planes play problem psychology quote reflex relevant response rules scientist seems self-asserting self-transcending sense skills specific stage stimuli structure sub-wholes symbolic theory things thinking thought tion turn unconscious unconscious mind universe universes of discourse verbal visual visual perception whole words wrote