Rice economy; employment and income in Malaysia
Method and analysis; Labour utilization in the double cropping areas; Income of padi farmers in the double-cropping villages; Expenditure pattern of households in the double-cropping area; Labour utilization in the padi farms of the single-cropping village; Income of padi farmers in the single-cropping village; Expenditure pattern of households in the single-cropping area; Marketing of padi in four villages in Province Wellesley.
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METHOD OF ANALYSIS
LABOUR UTILIZATION IN THE DOUBLE CROPPING
INCOME OF PADI FARMERS IN THE DOUBLE
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1-2 relongs 6-8 relongs agricultural Appendix Average per Household buffaloes cash income cash outflow dealers disguised unemployment double-cropping area Economic employed Farm Expenses farm produce retained Federation of Malaya Fishing gantangs gross income Household Dollars household expenditure households cultivating Income from Marketing irrigation June kampong katis Kedah Kuala Lumpur kuncha labour utilization landless households larger holdings main season Malaya Malayan Dollars marginal productivity mills money income months Muda River non-farm income off-season crop padi activity padi farmers padi farms padi land PadiWork payments in kind Percentage picul poultry Province Wellesley rate of return Relongs All Households RELONGS Total rent retained for home returns to labour rice rubber estates sample seasonal variation Sept single-cropping area sold surplus labour survey Table Total On-farm Employment transplanting Underemployment per cent University of Malaya Value of Farm villages wages women workers Zakat and Fitrah