Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power

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J. Wiley, 1890 - Heat - 260 pages

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Page 190 - The excess of specific heat^ under a constant pressure above the specific heat at a constant volume, is the same for all gases at the same temperature and pressure. 53. To prove this proposition, and to determine an expression for the "excess...
Page 52 - ... steam-engines can also be regarded as a means of destroying the equilibrium of the caloric. To be convinced of this we need to observe closely the manner in which motive power is developed by the action of heat on vapor of water. Imagine two bodies A and B, kept each at a constant temperature, that of A being higher than that of B. These two bodies, to which we can give or from which we can remove the heat without causing their temperatures to vary, exercise the functions of two unlimited reservoirs...
Page 139 - A perfect thermo-dynamic engine is such that, whatever amount of mechanical effect it can derive from a certain thermal agency; if an equal amount be spent in working it backwards, an equal reverse thermal effect will be produced.
Page 132 - To deny it would be to overturn the whole theory of heat, in which it is the fundamental principle. It must be admitted, however, that the chief foundations on which the theory of heat rests would require a most attentive examination. Several experimental facts appear nearly inexplicable in the actual state of this theory.
Page 38 - ... is everywhere so well known. To heat also are due the vast movements which take place on the earth. It causes the agitations of the atmosphere, the ascension of clouds, the fall of rain and of meteors, the currents of water which channel the surface of the globe and of which man has thus far employed but a small portion. Even earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are the result of heat. From this immense reservoir we may draw the moving force necessary for our purposes. Nature, in providing us with...
Page 68 - Thus we are led to establish this general proposition: The motive power of heat is independent of the agents employed to develop it; its quantity is determined solely by the temperatures of the bodies between which, in the final result, the transfer of the caloric occurs.
Page 55 - ... this would be not only perpetual motion, but an unlimited creation of motive power without consumption either of caloric or of any other agent whatever. Such a creation is entirely contrary to ideas now accepted, to the laws of mechanics and of sound physics. It is inadmissible...
Page 132 - Several experimental facts appear nearly inexplicable in the actual state of this theory." 7. Since the time when Carnot thus expressed himself, the necessity of a most careful examination of the entire experimental basis of the theory of heat has become more and more urgent. Especially all those assumptions depending on the idea that heat is a substance, invariable in quantity; not convertible into any other element, and incapable of being generated by any physical agency...
Page 126 - It should often give precedence to safety, to strength, to the durability of the engine, to the small space which it must occupy, to small cost of installation, etc. To know how to appreciate in each case, at their true value, the considerations of convenience and economy which may present themselves; to know how to discern the more important of those which are only accessories; to balance them properly against each other, in order to attain the best results by the simplest means...
Page 148 - A3P'A may be drawn as graphical representations of actual observations*. The figure being thus constructed, its area may be measured, and we are, therefore, in possession of a graphical method of determining the amount of mechanical effect to be obtained from any given thermal agency. As, however, it is merely the area of the figure which it is required to determine, it will not be necessary to be able to describe each of the curves...

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