## History of Strength of Materials: With a Brief Account of the History of Theory of Elasticity and Theory of StructuresStrength of materials is that branch of engineering concerned with the deformation and disruption of solids when forces other than changes in position or equilibrium are acting upon them. The development of our understanding of the strength of materials has enabled engineers to establish the forces which can safely be imposed on structure or components, or to choose materials appropriate to the necessary dimensions of structures and components which have to withstand given loads without suffering effects deleterious to their proper functioning.This excellent historical survey of the strength of materials with many references to the theories of elasticity and structures is based on an extensive series of lectures delivered by the author at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. Timoshenko explores the early roots of the discipline from the great monuments and pyramids of ancient Egypt through the temples, roads, and fortifications of ancient Greece and Rome. The author fixes the formal beginning of the modern science of the strength of materials with the publications of Galileo's book, "Two Sciences," and traces the rise and development as well as industrial and commercial applications of the fledgling science from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century. Timoshenko fleshes out the bare bones of mathematical theory with lucid demonstrations of important equations and brief biographies of highly influential mathematicians, including: Euler, Lagrange, Navier, Thomas Young, Saint-Venant, Franz Neumann, Maxwell, Kelvin, Rayleigh, Klein, Prandtl, and many others. These theories, equations, and biographies are further enhanced by clear discussions of the development of engineering and engineering education in Italy, France, Germany, England, and elsewhere. 245 figures. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

ELASTIC CURVES | 25 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY | 41 |

structural materials in the eighteenth century | 54 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS BETWEEN 1800 AND 1833 | 67 |

Strength of materials in England between 1800 and 1833 | 98 |

Other notable European contributions to strength of materials | 100 |

THE BEGINNING OF THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELAS TICITY 25 Equations of equilibrium in the theory of elasticity | 104 |

Duhamel and Phillips | 242 |

Franz Neumann | 246 |

G R Kirchhoff | 252 |

A Clebsch | 255 |

Lord Kelvin | 260 |

James Clerk Maxwell | 268 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS IN THE PERIOD 18671900 | 276 |

The work of 0 Mohr | 283 |

Cauchy | 107 |

Poisson | 111 |

G Lamé and B P E Clapeyron | 114 |

The theory of plates | 119 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS BETWEEN 1833 AND 1867 | 123 |

The growth of German engineering schools | 129 |

SaintVenants contributions to the theory of bending of beams | 135 |

Jourawskis analysis of shearing stresses in beams | 141 |

Continuous beams | 144 |

Bresse | 146 |

E Winkler | 152 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS IN THE EVOLUTION OF RAILWAY ENGINEERING 37 Tubular bridges | 156 |

Early investigations on fatigue of metals | 162 |

The work of Wöhler | 167 |

Moving loads | 173 |

Impact | 178 |

The early stages in the theory of trusses | 181 |

K Culmann | 190 |

W J Macquorn Rankine | 197 |

J C Maxwells contributions to the theory of structures | 202 |

Problems of elastic stability Column formulas | 208 |

Theory of retaining walls and arches between 1833 and 1867 | 210 |

THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY BETWEEN 1833 | 216 |

Early work in elasticity at Cambridge University | 222 |

Stokes | 225 |

50a Barré de SaintVenant | 229 |

The semiinverse method | 233 |

The later work of SaintVenant | 238 |

Strain energy and Castiglianos theorem | 288 |

Elastic stability problems | 293 |

August Föppl | 299 |

THEORY OF STRUCTURES IN THE PERIOD 18671900 | 304 |

Deflection of trusses | 311 |

Statically indeterminate trusses | 316 |

Arches and retaining walls | 323 |

THEORY OF ELASTICITY BETWEEN 1867 AND 1900 | 328 |

Lord Rayleigh | 334 |

Theory of elasticity in England between 1867 and 1900 | 339 |

Theory of elasticity in Germany between 1867 and 1900 | 344 |

71a Solutions of twodimensional problems between 1867 | 350 |

PROGRESS IN STRENGTH OF MATERIALS DURING THE TWEN TIETH CENTURY | 354 |

Properties of materials within the elastic limit | 355 |

Fracture of brittle materials | 358 |

Testing of ductile materials | 362 |

Strength theories | 368 |

Creep of metals at elevated temperatures | 372 |

Fatigue of metals | 377 |

Experimental stress analysis | 383 |

THEORY OF ELASTICITY DURING THE PERIOD 19001950 | 389 |

Ludwig Prandt | 392 |

Approximate methods of solving elasticity problems | 397 |

THEORY OF STRUCTURES DURING THE PERIOD 19001950 | 422 |

441 | |

449 | |

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