## History of Strength of Materials: With a Brief Account of the History of Theory of Elasticity and Theory of StructuresStrength of materials is that branch of engineering concerned with the deformation and disruption of solids when forces "other" than changes in position or equilibrium are acting upon them. The development of our understanding of the strength of materials has enabled engineers to establish the forces which can safely be imposed on structure or components, or to choose materials appropriate to the necessary dimensions of structures and components which have to withstand given loads without suffering effects deleterious to their proper functioning. This excellent historical survey of the strength of materials with many references to the theories of elasticity and structures is based on an extensive series of lectures delivered by the author at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. Timoshenko explores the early roots of the discipline from the great monuments and pyramids of ancient Egypt through the temples, roads, and fortifications of ancient Greece and Rome. The author fixes the formal beginning of the modern science of the strength of materials with the publications of Galileo's book, "Two Sciences," and traces the rise and development as well as industrial and commercial applications of the fledgling science from the seventeenth century through the twentieth century. Timoshenko fleshes out the bare bones of mathematical theory with lucid demonstrations of important equations and brief biographies of highly influential mathematicians, including: Euler, Lagrange, Navier, Thomas Young, Saint-Venant, Franz Neumann, Maxwell, Kelvin, Rayleigh, Klein, Prandtl, and many others. These theories, equations, and biographies are further enhanced by clear discussions of the development of engineering and engineering education in Italy, France, Germany, England, and elsewhere. 245 figures. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Et ASTIC CURVES | 25 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIAt S IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY | 41 |

structural materials in the eighteenth century | 54 |

Strength of materials in England hetween 1800 and 1833 | 98 |

Other notahle European contrihutions to strength of materials | 100 |

Equations of equilihrium in the theory of elasticity | 104 |

2fi Cauchy | 107 |

Moving loads | 178 |

The early stages in the theory of trusses | 181 |

K Culmann | 190 |

W J Macquorn Rankine | 197 |

J C Maxwells contrihutions to the theory of structures | 202 |

4fi Prohlems of elastic stahility Column formulas | 208 |

THE MATHEMATICAt THEORY OF Et ASTICITY BETWEEN 1833 | 210 |

The physical elasticity and the elastic constant con troversy 21f
i | 216 |

Poisson lll | 111 |

G l ame and B P E Clapeyron | 114 |

The theory of plates | 119 |

STRENGTH or MATERIALS BETWEEN 1833 AND 1807 | 123 |

The growth of German engineering schools | 129 |

SaintVenants contrihutions to the theory of hending of heams | 137 |

Jourawskis analysis of shearing stresses in heams | 141 |

Continuous heams | 144 |

Bresse 14f
i | 145 |

3fi E Winkler | 152 |

Tuhular hridges 15f
i | 156 |

Early investigations on fatigue of metals 1fi2 39 The work of Wohler 1fi7 | 167 |

Early work in elasticity at Camhridge University | 222 |

Stokes | 225 |

50a Barr6 de SaintVenant | 230 |

STRENGTH OF MATERIAL IN THE PERIOD 18fi71900 | 283 |

THEORY OF STRUCTURES is THE PERIOD 18fi71900 | 304 |

THEORY OF Et ASTICITY BETWEEN 18fi7 AND 1900 | 328 |

THEORY OF Et ASTICITY DURING THE PERIOD 19001950 | 389 |

THEORY OF STRUCTURES DVRING THK PERIOD 19001950 | 422 |

Name Index | 441 |

449 | |

### Common terms and phrases

Academy ahle ahout angle Applied Mechanics arch assumed atready axis calculating Camhridge circular compression compressive stresses considerahle considered contrihuted Coulomh cross section curve deflection deformation descrihed differential equation discussed displacements Ecole elastic hodies elastic limit engineers equilihrium estahlished Euler experimental experiments fihers Foppl forces acting formula fracture given hy hars heam hecame interested hecomes heen hefore heginning hetween hiography hook Hooke's law hoth houndary huckling important investigation l.ondon lahoratory later lectures load Math mathematics maximum memhers method modulus Navier numher ohserves ohtained ohtained hy paper Paris Petershurg physics plane plate pressure produced hy prohlem puhlications puhlished rectangular rotation Saint-Venant Saint-Venant's Sciences shearing stresses shown in Fig shows solution specimens stahility statically statically indeterminate strain energy strength of materials stress analysis stress distrihution suhject tahles tensile tensile stress tension tests theoretical theory of elasticity theory of structures tion torsion trusses tuhes uniformly distrihuted vihration