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ability activities analysis applied capital and labour civilised common competition conscious considerable conspicuous leisure consumers consumptive functions cooperative creative defects demand direct economic economic rent effective efficiency elements employees employment evoke expenditure fact factors factors of production grades higher human costs human utility human value human welfare illth imitation income increase individual industry infinite divisibility injurious instincts intellectual interest involves Labour Movement larger law of distribution leisure less living margin material ment methods modern modes moral nature necessary needs nomic organic organisation output payment physical processes production and consumption productive energy productively consumed profits progress quantity realise recognised regarded remuneration routine satisfaction saving Scientific Management secure skill social society sorts specialisation of labour standard of consumption standpoint sumers sumption supply surplus tion tive trade valuation wages waste wealth work-day workers working-class
Page 212 - pig-iron or to shovel earth under "scientific" supervision? Mr. Taylor has an interesting passage bearing on this question: 'Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig-iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type.
Page 211 - of the modern surgeon is any more narrowing or that he is more of a wooden man than the frontiersman. The many problems to be met and solved by the surgeon are just as intricate and difficult and as developing and broadening in their way as were those of the frontiersman.
Page 209 - management work almost side by side with the men, helping, encouraging and smoothing the way for them, while in the past they stood on one side, gave the men but little help, and threw on to them the entire responsibility as to methods, implements, speed, and harmonious cooperation.
Page 64 - poisoning the muscles, poisoning the brain, poisoning the heart, poisoning at last the blood itself, starting in the intricate machinery of the body new poisons in addition to themselves. The hunted hare, run to death, dies not because he is choked for want of breath, nor because his heart stands still, its store of energy having given out, but because
Page 209 - advocates of Scientific Management, though in a "qualified manner. One of the elements of success is said to be: 'An almost equal division of the work and responsibility between the workman and the management. All day long the management work almost side by side with the men, helping, encouraging and smoothing the way for them, while in the past they stood
Page 375 - A very stimulating study." — Review of Reviews. Labor and Administration By JOHN R. COMMONS Professor of Political Economy in the University of Wisconsin Cloth,
Page 63 - Did we possess some optic aid which should overcome the grossness of our vision, so that we might watch the dance of atoms in this double process of making and unmaking in the
Page 63 - From the great body of the factory labour which goes to the provision of our national income, the first great human cost that emerges is the burden of injurious fatigue which results from muscular or nervous overstrain, and from the other physical and moral injuries which are the natural accompaniments of this overstrain.
Page 10 - The essential work of the political economist is to determine what are in reality useful or Life-giving things, and by what degrees and
Page 329 - Quantitative method must spread in politics and must transform the vocabulary and the associations of that mental world into which the young politician enters.. Fortunately, such a change seems at least to be beginning. Every year larger and more exact collections of