Clinical Acupuncture: Scientific Basis
Gabriel Stux, Richard Hammerschlag, B. Pomeranz
Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Jan 1, 2001 - Medical - 227 pages
In 1988, when "Scientific Bases of Acupuncture" was published, its edi tors noted that 12 years had passed since the acupuncture endorphin hypothesis was first postulated, an event that marked the start of serious basic research on acupuncture. The editors also suggested that more was known about the mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia than many pro cedures of conventional medicine and, in consequence, it was time to stop referring to acupuncture as an "experimental procedure. " Now another 12 years have passed. Acupuncture research, both basic and clinical, has greatly expanded. Modern biomedical techniques, including those of molecular biology and medical imaging, have revealed increasingly detailed physiological correlates of acupuncture action. Clinical researchers from Europe, North America, and Asia have devised a variety of protocols to test acupuncture efficacy according to generally accepted standards for randomized controlled trials. A critical review of acupuncture research by the United States Food and Drug Administra tion resulted in the label "experimental" being legally removed from the packaging of acupuncture needles in 1996, just as the editors of "Scien tific Bases of Acupuncture" had proposed. A year later, again in large part a result of increased and improved acupuncture research, a consen sus conference on acupuncture convened by the U. S. National Institutes of Health concluded its panel report with the endorsement " . . . there is sufficient evidence of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conven tional medicine and to encourage further studies of its physiology and clinical value" (JAMA 280:1518-24).
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Acupuncture Analgesia Basic Research
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ACTH activity acupoints acupunc acupuncture analgesia acupuncture points acupuncture stimulation acupuncture treatment acupuncture trials afferent pathway analgesia produced analgesic antagonist antagonizes antiopioid arcuate nucleus areas assess auricular acupuncture cell Chin Chinese medicine chronic pain clinical trials cortex discrete sites dopamine doses dynorphin effects of acupuncture efficacy electrical stimulation electroacupuncture electroacupuncture analgesia endogenous endorphin enkephalin frequency function gap junctions hypothalamus ICV injection increase inhibition inhibitory system L-CM L-PAG lesions mechanism of acupuncture mediated meridian system met-enkephalin microinjection morphine morphine analgesia naloxone needling nerve neurons nonacupoints nonspecific opiate receptors opioid peptides opioid receptors organizing centers P-HARN patients periaqueductal periaqueductal gray physiological pituitary placebo Pomeranz practitioners produced analgesia proglumide puncture qualitative research randomized rats RCTs real acupuncture release respondents role sham acupuncture skin specific spinal cord studies Stux systematic review Takeshige techniques therapy tion tolerance trials of acupuncture ture Wang