The electrical transmission of energy: A manual for the design of electrical circuits

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D. Van Nostrand, 1907 - Electric power distribution - 675 pages
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Contents

Resistance and Tensile Strength of Aluminum Wire
18
10 Resistance of Aluminum Wire
21
Weights of Weatherproof Aluminum Wire
22
14 Propeities of Aluminum Brass and Bronze Co s SiliconBronze Wire E F A
25
16 Approximate Weights per Mile of Various Insulated Wires
29
17 Stranded Cables
33
18 Circular Millage of the Various Combinations of No 000 to No 3
34
19 Data accompanying British P O Wire Specifications
36
20 Specifications issued by the British P O Authorities for the Supply of Galvanized Wire
38
22 Table of Resistance and Temperature of Copper
40
23 Strength and Weight per Mile Iron Wire
41
24 Sags and Tensions to be observed in Wires at Various Temperatures
44
25 Coefficients of Tension and Length for Wire Spans
45
CHAPTER
46
36 Tensile Strength of Timber
53
38 Dimensions for Combination Anchor Poles
63
n 31 Data for GuyRod Branches
65
c 34 Data for PoleBands
67
Line Dynamometer
85
41 Western Union Joint
86
43 Mclntire Wire Joint
87
44 Aerial Cable Suspension
88
45 Cable Hook
89
46 AntiHummer
90
47 Telephone Transposition
91
48 Transposition Joints
92
49 Transposition for 20Wire Line
93
50 Transposition for 12Wirc Line
94
Table No 35 Comparative TestPorcelain and Glass Insulators 82 and Pockei 36 Pole Dimensions
95
CHAPTER IV
99
CenterPole Construction
100
54 SidePole Construction ior 55 SpanWire Construction
102
Urban ElectricRailway Construction
103
Relation Between Chemical Composition and Electrical Resistance of Steel Rail
104
Chemical Composition and Conductivity of Iron Alloys
105
Specific Conductivity of Various Irons
106
Horseshoe Bond
107
59 Portable Rail Drill
108
61 Bonds in Rail Flange
109
50 Solid Copper Bond
110
66 Plastic Rail Bond Ready for Application
112
Tests of Rail Bonds
113
Soldered Flexible Rail Bond
114
70 SpliceBar Electrically Welded Joint
115
71 Electric Welder
116
72 Cast Weld Joint Girder Rail
117
Thermite Weld Joint
118
CrossBonding and Ground Wiring
119
77 Feeder Terminal
120
78 Corroded WaterPipc
122
Corroded WaterPipe
123
80 Wooden Railway Poles
125
81 Pole Ratchets
126
83 Lattice Pole
127
Iron Pipe Poles
128
Pipe Poles for CenterPole Work
129
Sag of Span Wire and Strain on Side Poles for Single Trolley Wire
130
Adjustable Iron PoleTop
133
89 Wooden PoleTops
134
PoleTops Insulated and Uninsulated
135
Standard TrolleyWire Insulator with Soldered Ear
136
Bracket Insulator
138
StraightLine Insulator
139
Sections of Insulator l
140
Curve Construction
141
Curve GuyPole
142
103 PullOver
143
Method of Anchoring Single Line
144
107 Section Insulator
145
TwoPoint Switch
146
no Method of Setting Frog
147
in Crossovers and Switches in Place
148
CHAPTER V
149
CHAPTER XI
150
Inclosed Fuse
151
10000Volt Fuse Cutout 15J 115 Telephone Protectors
152
CircuitBreaker Open and Closed
153
117 General Electric Automatic CircuitBreaker
154
Westinghouse Triphase Automatic CircuitBreaker
155
Westinghouse Electrically Operated Oil CircuitBreaker
156
120 HighTension CircuitBreaker First and Third Positions
158
HighTension CircuitBreaker Second Position
159
HighTension CircuitBreaker
160
123 HighResistance Arrester
161
124A Improved SparkGap Protector Elevation
162
125 Magnetic Blowout Arrester
163
126 Westinghouse LightningArrester
164
127 SparkGap for LightningArrester
165
Circuit for LightningArrester
166
129 Westinghouse Tank Arrester
167
130 NonArcing Arresters
168
131 The Wurtz NonArcing ContinuousCurrent Arrester
169
132A Cable Protector 17
170
132B Switchboard Protector
171
Carrying Capacity of Wires Underwriters Rules
176
Insulation Resistance Underwriters Rules
185
Carrying Capacities of Stranded Cables Underwriters Rules
187
CHAPTER VI
189
The Wyckoff or McDonald Conduit
191
Iron Pipe Conduit iJ 135 Cementlined Iron Pipe
194
The Dorset Duct
195
137 ioX 10 TerraCotta Duct
196
138 Laying ioX 10 Ducts
197
139 The TerraCotta Separate Duct System Pipe Section
198
140 SeparateDuct TerraCotta Conduit
200
141 MultipleDuct Conduit
201
142 Laying Multiple Ducts
202
143 Joining Multiple Duct
204
144 Entrance to Concrete Manhole
205
145 Brick Manhole
206
Standard Vitrified Conduit
207
Crompton Conduit half Plan and Section at Manhole
208
Crompton Conduit Longitudinal Section
209
148 Brooks System Junction Box
210
151 Johnstone System
211
152 Manhole of Johnstone System
212
Section of Kennedy System
213
155 Parisian System
214
156 Crosssection of the Callender Solid System
215
157 Manhole Callender Solid System
216
158 Cologne Conduit
217
150 Zurich Conduit
218
160 A Terminal Manhole
219
161 New York Subway Manhole
220
162 Street Railway Junction Box
221
CHAPTER VII
226
163 Siemens Incandescent Light Cable Paris No 1
227
165 Siemens Concentric Cable No 3
228
166 Junction Box for Siemens Cable
229
167 Edison Tubes and Junction Box
231
168 Edison Distributing anH Service Boxes
232
169 Edison Distributing Box
233
170 The Ferranti Mains
234
171 Submarine Telegraph Cable
235
172 Power Cables 23
236
173 Paper Cables
237
174 Sections of Transmission Cables
238
175 Types of HighTension Cables
240
176 Sections of FeltonGuilleaume Cable
244
178 The Guilleaume Submarine Telephone Cable
245
179 The Herrmann Cable
246
180 Cable Splices
247
181 Cable Terminal Pole
249
182 Cable Head
250
CHAPTER VIII
251
183 On the Detroit Ypsilanti Ann Arbor Jackson Railway
253
Details of Transmission Line Single Bracket
254
185 Details of Transmission Pole Double Bracket
255
PAGE
266
CHAPTER IX
272
245 Battery Resistance by Condenser
320
246 Measurement of Electromotive Force by Condenser
322
247 Connection for Lumdens Method
323
249 Current Strength by Differential Galvanometer
326
252 Diagram of Circuit in Thomsons Method
327
253 Diagram of Circuit in Gotts Method
328
254 Diagram of Blaviers Method
329
255 Circuits fcr Murrays Method
331
257 Diagram for ihe Location of a Cross
332
258 Diagram for the Location of a Cross
333
260 Circuits for Measuring Mutual Inductance
335
ThreeAmmeter Method
337
263 ThreeAmmeter Method of Test Circuit for Electric Railway
341
264 Connection for Measuring Capacity in Aerial Lines
342
265 Circuit for Measurement of Inductance on Aerial Lines
344
266 Diagram of Line Capacity
345
267 Circuit for Measuring Mutual Inductance on Aerial Lines
346
ContinuousCurrent Conductor
347
Calculation of Capacity by Methods of Loss of Charge 315 and Pocket 45 Chemically Pure Metals arranged in order of Increasing Resist ance for the...
349
Resistance of Metals for Grainfoot Grammemeter and Milli metermeter
350
Value of a and B in Formula Rii +art+3t
351
Resistance of 1 Milfoot of Copper Wire at Different Temperatures Fahrenheit
352
Specific Resistance of Insulators
355
269 Diagram of Potential Distribution in a Single Circuit
359
270 Diagram for Determining the Resistance of Branch Circuits
361
CHAPTER XII
367
Relative Resistance and Specific Resistance of Copper
371
Value of ooi75 + oi3f
372
Current Strengths to Elevate Wires from 5 to 400 Centigrade Pocket 54 Current Strength to Elevate Blackened Wires to 8o Centigrade
373
Safe Currents for Paneled Wires
374
Rise of Temperature for Paneled Wires
376
Safe Currents for Galvanized Iron Wire Rheostats
378
Safe Current in German Silver Wire
379
Giving the Sizes of Various Wires which will be Fused by a given Current
380
Carrying Capacity of Lead and Tin Alloys
381
Diameter and Fusing Current of Lead and Tin Alloys
382
Relation between Length and Carrying Capacity of Fuse Wire
383
Effect on Carrying Capacity of Fuse Wires of the Duration of the Current
384
Carrying Capacity Lead and Tin Wires
385
Specific Thermal Conductivity in C G S Units
388
Temperature Relations of Neighboring Underground Cables
389
Conductors for Alternating Currents
391
Thickness of Shell on Cylindrical Conductors Affected by the Cur rent in an Alternating Circuit
394
SkinEffect Factors for Conductors Carrying Alternating Currents
395
274 Diagram of Motion of Conductor in a Magnetic Field
399
275 Diagram of the Harmonic Motion
400
Diagram of Operations on Vectors
423
277 Diagram of Compositions of E M F s
427
278 Diagram of a Simple Circuit Values Containing Resistance and Induct ance
428
279 Diagram of Current Values in Circuits containing Resistance and Induct ance with Variable Resistance
431
280 Diagram of E M F s in a Single Circuit containing Several Resistances and Inductances in series
433
Diagram of E M F s in a Single Circuit containing Resistance and Capac ity in Series
435
282 Diagram of a Single Circuit containing Resistance Inductance and Capacity
437
Diagram of E M F s in a Complex Circuit with Several Resistances In ductances and Capacities in Parallel
439
Diagram of the Method of Equivalent Resistance and Inductance
442
Diagram of E M F in Mutually Inductive Circuits
445
Table No 73 Multipliers to Transform E S C S S Units into M F per Mile
456
74 Specific Inductive Capacity
459
CHAPTER XIV
460
Diagram to Ascertain the Value of K or K
476
75 Costof Laying One Additional Ton of Copper
478
76 Sectional Area for 1000 Amperes in Square Inches and Circular Mils
479
77 Hours of Lighting
483
Diagram of Series of Lighting
487
ArcLamp Circuit
488
CHAPTER XV
490
290 Contrast between Plain Series and Multiple Series Systems
492
Diagram Independent Circuit for each Receiver
493
The Parallel System
494
293 Complete MultipleArc System 49
496
295 The Spiral Loop
498
298 The Closet System Detail of Group
499
AntiConical Conductors 5 00
500
AntiParallel Feeding
501
Diagram Potential Distribution Case 1
502
303 Diagram Potential Distribution Case II
505
Diagram Distribution of Potential Case III
507
Diagram Distribution of Potential Case IV
509
80 Relations between Copper Sections for Different Methods of Dis tribution
510
MultipleSeries System
512
308 ThreeWire System
513
309 Balancing Diagram
515
ThreeWire System with Single Dynamo
517
311 ThreeBrush ThreeWire System
518
312 ThreeWire System with StorageBattery Equalizer
519
ThreeWire System with Compensating Dynamo
520
Designs for MultipleWire Systems
521
FiveWire Systems with Motor Dynamo
522
Areas Covered by MultipleWire Systems
523
Feeder System Paris
526
Diagram to Determine Location of Station
528
321 Curve of Feeder Pressure Brooklyn Edison Station
538
322 Compensator for Three Voltages
539
323 Diagram for Fall Pressure in Feeders
542
Street Load Diagram
551
82 Calculations for Point of Least Pressure
554
Street Distribution
555
City Distribution
556
327 HouseWiring
558
83 Heating Limits for Conductors
559
Aerial and Paneled Conductors
561
Minimum Safe Diameter of Copper Wire
562
Diagram Experimental Method of Finding Point of Least Pressure
563
Curves of Station Output
567
33 Diagram to Determine Mean Annual Current from Station Load Curves
569
331 Station Diagram Navesink Mountain Railway
571
Load Diagram Minneapolis Street Railway
572
Miscellaneous Methods
576
334 Compensator on ThreeWire System
578
335 Compensator on FiveWire System
579
337 Series Motor Transformers
582
339 Leonards System
583
340 Accumulator Distribution
585
342 Transformer Circuits
589
343 Transformer for Arc Lamps 59
590
345 Feeder and Main System with Transformer
591
346 Wiring for Transformer Secondary Circuits Secondaries in Parallel
592
CHAPTER XVII
596
349 Diagram of Polyphase Armature
597
350 Diagram of Diphase Armature 508
599
3SS Diagram of Quarterphase E M F or Current
600
356 Diagram of Quarterphase Armature Star Connected 60 r 357 Diagram of Quarterphase Armature Ring Connected
601
358 Diagram of Triphasc Armature Y Connected
602
Diagram of Balanced and Unbalanced Circuit
603
364 Triphase Generator
604
365 Distribution by Triphasc Systems
606
84 Relative Amounts of Conductor Material on Basis of Effective Pressure
607
85 Relative Amounts of Conductor Material on Basis of Maximum Pressure
608
Power and Inductance Factors
610
87 Physical and Electrical Constants of Copper Wire
612
88 Relation between Spacing and Impedance of Wires
619
89 Example of Transmission Line Calculation
621
90 Line Loss in Percent of Power delivered
622
CHAPTER XVIII
624
92 Cost of Conduit
630
93 Cost per Street Foot for Manholes
632
96 Cost of Pole Lines
633
97 Cost of One Mile of StreetRailway Line
634
98 ElectricRailway Operation
635
99 Cost of Trolley Line and Third Rail
636
100 Steam Consumption of Turbine Facing page
638
102 Cost of ElectricLight Station
639
103 Cost of Installing Arc Lamps Various Systems
641
104 Cost of Operating Arc Lamps
642
105 Tests on Steam Turbines
644
106 Cost of Producing Electrical Energy
645
107 Gas Consumption Gas Engines
648
108 Cost of Electric Lighting by Wind Power
649
7a Graphical Table for Calculation of Inductance and Capacity 449 and Pocket
15

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