Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex, and
When Congress passed Title IX of the Civil Rights Act in 1972, they seemed to be doing something laudable and also long overdue-prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex in America's schools. But thirty years later, a law designed to guarantee equal opportunity has become the most explicit, government-enforced quota regime in America, putting boys and men on the losing side of a battle for athletic and educational opportunity. Jessica Gavora interviewed dozens of leading college athletes, educators and legal experts for this provocative, yet carefully researched book. She argues that the 1999 World Cup victory of the U.S. Women's Soccer team widely seen as a Title IX triumph, was actually the result of a far more profound social revolution that has changed America's mind about sexual roles and female destiny. If anything, Title IX has had a destructive overall effect on all college athletes by killing opportunities to compete. Gavora shows how Title IX sports quotas have caused chaos at schools like Brown University and led directly to the cancellation of some of the most prestigious men's programs in the country-among them Providence College's baseball team, Princeton's wrestling team and the men's swimming and diving program that produced several Olympic champions. But if Title IX has tilted the college playing field, Gavora suggests that its greatest impact on American social life may still lie ahead as the federal bureaucrats, activist judges, and radical feminists who have shaped the statute's interpretation now seek to expand its reach into sexual harassment and other areas of education where boys and girls have to conform to their notion of "gender equity."
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Introduction The Stronger Women Get
Chapter One The Numbers Game
Chapter Two A Field of Nightmares
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academic activists administration American Amy Cohen argued athletic director athletic participation athletic programs baseball basis of sex basketball Brown Daily Herald campus Christina Hoff Sommers Chronicle of Higher Civil Rights Clinton coaches colleges and universities competition Daly Donna Lopiano equal opportunity FairTest female athletes feminists football funding gender equity gender quotas girls and women high school Higher Education Independent Women's Forum institutions interests and abilities lawsuit male athletes mandate Mary Daly math and science Maureen Mahoney men's teams ment NCAA OCR's Office for Civil officials opportunities for women percent play sports players playing field political preferences proportionality PSAT regulations Sandler says school district scores sex differences sex discrimination sexual harassment sports programs squad student body Supreme Court testosterone three-part test Title IX compliance Title IX enforcement Title IX quotas U.S. women's varsity women's athletic women's groups Women's Sports Foundation women's teams wrestling