## The Emergence of the American Mathematical Research Community, 1876-1900: J.J. Sylvester, Felix Klein, and E.H. MooreThis volume traces the transformation of the United States from a mathematical backwater to a major presence during the quarter-century from 1876 to 1900. Presenting a detailed study of the major figures involved in this transformation, it focuses on the three most influential individuals--the British algebraist James Joseph Sylvester, the German standard-bearer Felix Klein, and the American mathematician Eliakim Hastings Moore--and on the principal institutions with which they were associated--the Johns Hopkins University, Gottingen University, and the University of Chicago. This book further analyzes the research traditions these men and their institutions represented, the impact they had on the second generation of American mathematical researchers, and the role of the American Mathematical Society in these developments. This is the first work ever written on the history of American mathematics during this period and one of the few books that examines the historical development of American mathematics from a wide perspective. By placing the development of American mathematics within the context of broader external factors affecting historical events, the authors show how the character of American research was decisively affected by the surrounding scientific, educational, and social contexts of the period. Aimed at a general mathematical audience and at historians of science, this book contains an abundance of unpublished archival material, numerous rare photographs, and an extensive bibliography. |

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### Contents

Preface | ix |

An Overview of American Mathematics 17761876 | 1 |

A New Departmental Prototype J J Sylvester and the Johns Hopkins University | 53 |

Mathematics at Sylvesters Hopkins | 99 |

German Mathematics and the Early Mathematical Career of Felix Klein | 147 |

Americas Wanderlust Generation | 189 |

Changes on the Horizon | 261 |

The Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the Chicago Mathematical Congress | 295 |

Surveying Mathematical Landscapes The Evanston Colloquium Lectures | 331 |

Meeting the Challenge The University of Chicago and the American Mathematical Research Community | 363 |

Epilogue Beyond the Threshold The American Mathematical Research Community 19001933 | 427 |

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academic algebraic American Journal American mathematical research American Mathematical Society Arthur Cayley B. G. Teubner Benjamin Peirce Berlin Birkhoff Bocher Bulletin calculus Cambridge Century of Mathematics Chapter Clark Clebsch Cole College Congress course curves David Hilbert Differential Equations dissertation doctoral E. H. Moore early elliptic ematics Evanston Colloquium faculty Felix Klein finite functions geometry George German Gibbs Gilman Papers Gottingen graduate Harper Harvard Henry Ibid ideas institutions invariant theory J. J. Sylvester James Joseph Sylvester Johns Hopkins University Journal of Mathematics Klein Nachlass later Leipzig Lie's linear Maschke Math mathematical research community mathematicians Mathematik Mathematische Annalen Max Noether Moore's Newcomb nineteenth century NSUB number theory Osgood Oskar Bolza Papers JJS partitions Poincare problem Professor published research-level Riemann surfaces scientific semester seminar Sophus Lie Springer-Verlag Sylvester's teaching theorem tion Ueber United University of Chicago Vleck vols Vorlesungen Weierstrass William Winston Yale York