The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis
The English Language in Canada examines the current status, history and principal features of Canadian English, focusing on the 'standard' variety heard across the country today. The discussion of the status of Canadian English considers the number and distribution of its speakers, its relation to French and other Canadian languages and to American English, its status as the expressive medium of English Canadian culture and its treatment in previous research. The review of its history concentrates on the historical roots and patterns of English-speaking settlement that established Canadian English and influenced its character in each region of Canada. The analysis of its principal features compares the vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar of Canadian English to standard British and American English. Subsequent chapters examine variation and change in the vocabulary and pronunciation of Canadian English, while a final chapter briefly considers the future of Canadian English.
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The establishment and growth of Canadas
provinces of Ontario Quebec New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
The principal features of Canadian English
Variation and change in the vocabulary of Canadian English
Variation and change in the phonetics of Canadian English
Aboriginal Alberta allophones American English analysis anglophone apparent-time Ash and Boberg Atlantic Canada Avis Britain British Columbia British immigration Brunswick Canadian English Canadian Raising Canadian Shift century chesterﬁeld cities contrast culture dialects distinct eastern Ontario English-speaking ﬁgures ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂapping francophone French frequency fronting of uw Gregg groups identiﬁed indicating inﬂuence Inland North Irish isoglosses Italian Jewish Labov language lexical linguistic low-back merger Loyalist major Manitoba Maritimes mean F1 Montreal Montreal English NARVS NARVS data native Newfoundland Newfoundland English North American North American English Nova Scotia ofﬁcial Ottawa participants patterns percent phonemic incidence phonetic measures population Prairies Prince Edward Island pronunciation provinces Quebec Raising of awT reﬂects respondents retracted sample Saskatchewan settlement signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly southern Ontario speakers speciﬁc speech Table term Toronto United unraised usage values Vancouver variation vocabulary vowel space West western Canada words