## Logic-Based Artificial IntelligenceThe use of mathematical logic as a formalism for artificial intelligence was recognized by John McCarthy in 1959 in his paper on Programs with Common Sense. In a series of papers in the 1960's he expanded upon these ideas and continues to do so to this date. It is now 41 years since the idea of using a formal mechanism for AI arose. It is therefore appropriate to consider some of the research, applications and implementations that have resulted from this idea. In early 1995 John McCarthy suggested to me that we have a workshop on Logic-Based Artificial Intelligence (LBAI). In June 1999, the Workshop on Logic-Based Artificial Intelligence was held as a consequence of McCarthy's suggestion. The workshop came about with the support of Ephraim Glinert of the National Science Foundation (IIS-9S2013S), the American Association for Artificial Intelligence who provided support for graduate students to attend, and Joseph JaJa, Director of the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies who provided both manpower and financial support, and the Department of Computer Science. We are grateful for their support. This book consists of refereed papers based on presentations made at the Workshop. Not all of the Workshop participants were able to contribute papers for the book. The common theme of papers at the workshop and in this book is the use of logic as a formalism to solve problems in AI. |

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### Contents

III | 3 |

V | 4 |

VI | 9 |

VII | 10 |

VIII | 11 |

IX | 12 |

X | 13 |

XI | 14 |

XCVIII | 281 |

C | 282 |

CI | 285 |

CII | 288 |

CIII | 290 |

CIV | 293 |

CV | 297 |

CVI | 306 |

XII | 15 |

XIII | 16 |

XIV | 17 |

XVI | 18 |

XVII | 19 |

XVIII | 20 |

XIX | 21 |

XX | 27 |

XXI | 37 |

XXIII | 38 |

XXIV | 45 |

XXV | 47 |

XXVI | 49 |

XXVII | 51 |

XXVIII | 52 |

XXX | 59 |

XXXII | 61 |

XXXIII | 63 |

XXXIV | 68 |

XXXV | 76 |

XXXVI | 79 |

XXXVIII | 82 |

XXXIX | 84 |

XL | 90 |

XLI | 94 |

XLII | 95 |

XLIII | 97 |

XLIV | 107 |

XLV | 108 |

XLVI | 109 |

XLVII | 111 |

XLVIII | 113 |

XLIX | 119 |

L | 122 |

LI | 127 |

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LIII | 130 |

LIV | 133 |

LV | 136 |

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LVIII | 147 |

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LXX | 182 |

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LXXII | 188 |

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LXXV | 198 |

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LXXIX | 213 |

LXXX | 214 |

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LXXXV | 229 |

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LXXXIX | 238 |

XC | 241 |

XCI | 248 |

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XCV | 259 |

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CVII | 315 |

CIX | 316 |

CX | 320 |

CXI | 322 |

CXII | 326 |

CXIII | 333 |

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CXIX | 361 |

CXX | 362 |

CXXI | 365 |

CXXII | 367 |

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CXXVI | 376 |

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CXXIX | 384 |

CXXX | 388 |

CXXXI | 389 |

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CXXXIV | 400 |

CXXXV | 405 |

CXXXVI | 407 |

CXXXVII | 408 |

CXXXVIII | 410 |

CXXXIX | 413 |

CXL | 416 |

CXLI | 420 |

CXLII | 430 |

CXLIII | 439 |

CXLIV | 445 |

CXLV | 447 |

CXLVI | 451 |

CXLVII | 453 |

CXLVIII | 456 |

CXLIX | 458 |

CL | 460 |

CLI | 465 |

CLIII | 467 |

CLIV | 469 |

CLV | 472 |

CLVII | 473 |

CLVIII | 476 |

CLIX | 482 |

CLX | 487 |

CLXII | 491 |

CLXIV | 504 |

CLXV | 507 |

CLXVI | 509 |

CLXVII | 512 |

CLXVIII | 519 |

CLXIX | 521 |

CLXX | 526 |

CLXXI | 531 |

CLXXII | 537 |

CLXXIII | 543 |

CLXXV | 544 |

CLXXVI | 548 |

CLXXVII | 549 |

CLXXVIII | 552 |

CLXXIX | 557 |

CLXXX | 561 |

CLXXXII | 563 |

CLXXXIII | 567 |

CLXXXIV | 571 |

CLXXXV | 572 |

CLXXXVI | 573 |

CLXXXVII | 576 |

CLXXXVIII | 578 |

CLXXXIX | 585 |

CXC | 587 |

CXCI | 593 |

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### Common terms and phrases

AAAI ACL2 actions agent algorithm answer set applications approach Artificial Intelligence atelic atoms autoepistemic logic axioms beliefs Boolean causal cognitive robotics compilation complexity Computer Science conditional effects Conference on Artificial constraints Datalog Datalog LITE deductive database Default Logic default rules default theory defined Definition denote described disjunctive domain dynamic logic editors encoding example execution expressive finite fixpoint fluent formal formula frame problem Functional Strips Gelfond goal heuristic implementation inductive Inductive Logic Programming inference instance Kautz Knowledge Representation language Lemma Levesque Lifschitz literals logic programming logic-based McCarthy Minker modal modal logic monotone Morgan Kaufmann negation nonmonotonic reasoning operator paper planner planning polynomial possibilistic possible preconditions predicate preference Proc Proceedings propositional query recursive Reiter relation represented robot satisfiability schema Section Selman situation abstract situation calculus solving stable model semantics subset symbols temporal theorem variables well-founded well-founded semantics Zaniolo