Space Transportation Systems, Launch Systems, and Propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach
Rand, 1991 - Launch vehicles (Astronautics) - 192 pages
This Note analyzes a number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions. For space transportation options, the operational figures of merit that are of interest are (1) initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) and (2) transit times to and from the destination planet. It is desirable for both these parameters to have low values. Of the space transportation options examined, two approaches are most interesting: split missions, which use cargo spacecraft that follow low-energy trajectories to pre-position in Mars orbit the mass needed for Mars exploration and Earth return; and the use of in-situ propellants, which offer the potential for large reductions in IMLEO.
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MAJOR TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS
SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM OPTIONS
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90-Day Study achieve aerobrake antimatter antiprotons boosters cargo vehicle chemical propulsion concept cost discussed Earth return Earth-to-Mars ECCV electric propulsion energy flight fuel fusion gas core heliocentric orbit hydrogen IMLEO requirements in-situ propellants infrastructure ion thrusters km/sec launch system Launch Vehicle launchers light gas guns liquid LPNTP Lunar magnetic sails Mars departure Mars exploration Mars mission Mars orbit Mars-to-Earth Martian system metric tons mission duration Moon MPD thrusters NASA NERVA NTP system nuclear propulsion Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Nuclear Thermal Rocket on-orbit operational oxygen panel parking orbit percent performance perihelion potential produce propulsion braking propulsion systems Propulsion Technologies relative rocket engine Saturn Shuttle Shuttle-C solar sail space transportation options spacecraft split mission Submission ID Title/Subject Sun-central angle surface Table tether thrust thrusters trajectory Transfer Vehicle transportation system tripropellants values of IMLEO velocity velocity-added