Journal of the New England Water Works Association, Volume 7

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New England Water Works Association., 1892 - Water-supply
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Page 101 - ... is circulation in the water of a pond or reservoir whereby all the water in turn is exposed on the surface to the atmosphere. On the advent of warm weather in the spring of the year the water of any ponds over twenty feet deep may become stagnant at the bottom, and if the water contains decomposable organic matter the oxygen in solution is soon consumed and no more can be obtained from the atmosphere. Under these conditions this stagnant layer becomes very foul from putrefaction. This matter...
Page 127 - ... on at the Lawrence experiment station of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts, under the direction of Hiram F. Mills, Esq., the distinguished hydraulic engineer, who is a member of the Board and Chairman of its Committee on on water supply and sewerage.
Page 11 - Wisconsin, the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the Association for the nominees as reported.
Page 104 - The most careful examination of the water has failed to reveal anything to sight, taste, smell or analysis, which can be considered as throwing the slightest suspicion upon the purity of the Hudson, or its fitness for supplying a perfectly wholesome beverage for the citizens of AIbany.
Page 101 - But the water in the stagnant layer does not become foul unless there is decomposable organic matter present. Thus, in Basin 4 of the Boston Water Works, which was carefully prepared for the reception of the water by the removal of all soil and vegetable matter, and is supplied with a brown swampy water from a watershed almost entirely free from population, the water is good at a depth of forty feet, because the water contains very little organic matter with a tendency to decomposition.
Page 98 - After aerating 72 hours .0688 .0250 .0003 .0420 The variations in the amounts of albuminoid ammonia and the nitrates in these experiments are, in general, too small to have any significance, and fall, in most cases, within the limits of accuracy of the processes- used. The loss of free ammonia when the water is aerated is an instance of the driving out of one gas by another. Ammonia cannot be completely removed in this way, but when it is present in considerable amount in a water the effect of aeration...
Page 112 - Whether it is always of so little importance may be more open to question. Naturally, at Berlin, the scraping is so arranged as to remove as little sand each time as possible. Gradually, however, the sand layer grows thinner, and after a time it must be replenished with new (or washed) sand to the original depth. This happens about once in two years, and requires considerable time. Even the ordinary scraping requires that the filter shall be out of connection for several days. At some seasons scraping...
Page 114 - This filling muet be done slowly for otherwise air will remaiii in spite of it, and will interfere with the successful operation of the filters by forming during its escape, canals, through which organisms can penetrate into the under layers of sand or gravel. After the filter has been operated...
Page 120 - ... chemistry, and for some years assistant at the Lawrence experiment station of the Massachusetts State board of health, as research chemist and bacteriologist. A full description of the laboratory and experiment station is given on pages 97-107, illustrated by figs. 10-14. The elaborate and long-continued experiments of the State board of health of Massachusetts at the Lawrence experiment station on intermittent sand filtration as a means of sewage purification made it advisable to set up only...
Page 110 - The filter is then described as "dead," and must be cleaned. It is therefore drained, and a gang of men is set to work on it with broad tin shovels, or with special ''scrapers." A plank track is laid on an incline down into the- basin and the scrapings are taken away in wheelbarrows to the sand-washing house. At the time of my visit a gang of perhaps thirty men was cleaning a filter.

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