Unobtrusive Measures

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SAGE, 2000 - Social Science - 220 pages
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Thirty-five years ago, the four authors of this book addressed the problems of validity in social science research. They were interested in new and unused methods for obtaining information. The original edition and an expanded version have often been cited as justification for using novel means to supplement, if not replace, conventional techniques, especially survey and archival research. Illustrations abound in this book. While the novelty of the illustrations will keep many a graduate student amused, the more serious purpose is to authorize and motivate ingenuity in obtaining information. Even more fundamental is the strategy of combining very different methods so that research results can, by triangulation, withstand "threats to validity" that so frequently invalidate single-measure, conventional research.

 

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Contents

Approximations to Knowledge
1
Operationism and Multiple Operations
3
Interpretable Comparisons and Plausible Rival Hypothesis
5
Internal and External Validity
10
Sources of Invalidity of Measures
12
The Measurement of Outcroppings
26
The Access to Content
28
Operating Ease and Validity Checks
31
Written Documents
105
A Concluding Note
110
Simple Observation
113
Exterior Physical Signs
116
Expressive Movement
120
Physical Location
124
Conservation Sampling
128
Time Duration
134

Physical Traces Erosions and Accretion
35
Natural Erosion Measures
37
Natural Accretion Measures
39
Controlled Erosion Measures
43
Controlled Accretion Measures
44
Corrections and Index Numbers
46
An OverAll Evaluation of Physical Evidence Data
49
Archives I The Running Record
53
Actuarial Records
57
Political and Judicial Records
65
Other Government Records
72
The Mass Media
75
Data Transformations and Indices of the Running Record
81
OverAll Evaluation of Running Records
83
Archives II The Episodic and Private Record
89
Sales Records
91
Industrial and Institutional Records
99
Time Sampling and Observation
136
OverAll Comments on Simple Observation
138
Contrived Observation Hidden Hardware and Control
143
Physical Supplanting of the Observer
150
The Interviewing Observer
156
Entrapment
164
Petitions and Volunteering
166
An OverAll Appraisal of Hidden Hardware and Control
169
A Final Note
173
A Statistician on Method
185
Cardinal Newmans Epitaph
187
References
189
Further Reading
211
Index
215
About the Authors
219
Copyright

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About the author (2000)

During his more than 25 years at the university's Business School, he studied organizations and the nature of the relationships among employees as well as the nature of competition among corporations. He played an early role in bringing the methods of behavioral psychology into the curriculum of business schools.

The annual Campbell Prizes, which honor the memory of distinguished social scientist Donald T. Campbell, recognize outstanding social science research conducted by Lehigh students. Donald T. Campbell passed away on May 6, 1996, leaving a legacy of high standards for social science inquiry to Lehigh University and the national and international social science community.

He was University Professor of Social Relations, Psychology, and Education at Lehigh University until he retired in 1994. Campbell received his A.B. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley, and he held teaching positions at Northwestern University, Syracuse University, University of Chicago, and Ohio State University. During his career, he also lectured at Oxford, Harvard, and Yale Universities.

He served as president of the American Psychological Association and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Campbell received numerous honorary degrees and awards. He wrote more than 235 articles in the areas of social psychology, sociology, anthropology, education, and philosophy, covering a broad scope of topics from social science methodology to philosophy of science.

The Campbell Prize honors this aspiration for excellence. The prize of $500 is awarded for social science papers of high quality, methodological originality, and societal significance, as embodied in the work of the late Donald T. Campbell.

Donald Campbell and his remarkable career earned a New York Times obituary and a Lehigh University faculty memorial resolution.

Professor Schwartz came to Syracuse after almost 25 years as a distinguished teacher and scholar in both law and sociology. He is the author of many scholarly publications in both fields, including the books Society and the Legal Order, Unobtrusive Measures, Criminal Law: Theory and Process, and the Handbook of Regulation and Administrative Law. He is recognized as a leading authority on law and society. He taught on the law and sociology faculties at Northwestern and Yale universities and was dean and professor of law at State University of New York at Buffalo. Professor Schwartz was the founding editor of the Law and Society Review. Professor Schwartz teaches courses in law and society, public administration and legal process, and criminal law.

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