The Nature of Reasoning
Cambridge University Press, 2004 - Psychology - 470 pages
We are bombarded with information - press releases, television news, internet websites, and office memos, just to name a few - on a daily basis. However, the important conclusions that may or need to be inferred from such information are typically not provided. We must draw the conclusions by ourselves. How do we draw these conclusions? This 2004 book addresses how we reason to reach sensible conclusions. The purpose of this book is to organise in one volume what is known about reasoning, such as its structural prerequisites, its mechanisms, its susceptibility to pragmatic influences, its pitfalls, and the bases for its development. Given that reasoning underlies so many of our intellectual activities - when we learn, criticise, analyse, judge, infer, evaluate, optimise, apply, discover, imagine, devise, and create - we stand to gain a great deal if we can learn to define, operate, apply, and nurture our reasoning.
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Defining and Describing Reason
Reasoning and Brain Function
Working Memory and Reasoning
The Role of Prior Belief in Reasoning
Strategies and Knowledge Representation
Mental Models and Reasoning
MentalLogic Theory What It Proposes and Reasons to Take This Proposal Seriously
Cognitive Heuristics Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way
The Assessment of Logical Reasoning
The Development of Deductive Reasoning
The Evolution of Reasoning
Individual Differences in Thinking Reasoning and Decision Making
What do We Know about the Nature of Reasoning?
Heuristics and Reasoning I Making Deduction Simple
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ability abstract applied argument behavior Braine Cambridge cards categorical syllogisms central executive chapter chefs are artists Cognitive Science conditional reasoning confirmation bias consider context Cosmides Cummins deductive reasoning deontic developmental diagrams domain effect Erlbaum evaluate Evans evidence evolutionary example Experimental Psychology false formal Gigerenzer Girotto heuristics human reasoning hypothesis identify individual differences induction inferences interpretation Journal of Experimental Kahneman learning logical reasoning Manktelow Markovits match meaning memory mental logic mental models mental-logic theory model theory modus ponens modus tollens Newstead normative not-q O'Brien Oaksford participants pattern performance phonological loop possible pragmatic predicted presented procedures proof theory propositions Psychological Review quantifiers rationality reasoning tasks recognition heuristic relevant representations role rule schemas selection task shortcuts social spatial specific Stanovich Sternberg strategies studies syllogistic reasoning tion true truth table Tversky University Press valid conclusion visual Wason Wason selection task