The Nature of Reasoning

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 2004 - Psychology - 470 pages
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We are bombarded with information - press releases, television news, internet websites, and office memos, just to name a few - on a daily basis. However, the important conclusions that may or need to be inferred from such information are typically not provided. We must draw the conclusions by ourselves. How do we draw these conclusions? This 2004 book addresses how we reason to reach sensible conclusions. The purpose of this book is to organise in one volume what is known about reasoning, such as its structural prerequisites, its mechanisms, its susceptibility to pragmatic influences, its pitfalls, and the bases for its development. Given that reasoning underlies so many of our intellectual activities - when we learn, criticise, analyse, judge, infer, evaluate, optimise, apply, discover, imagine, devise, and create - we stand to gain a great deal if we can learn to define, operate, apply, and nurture our reasoning.

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Defining and Describing Reason
Reasoning and Brain Function
Working Memory and Reasoning
The Role of Prior Belief in Reasoning
Task Understanding
Strategies and Knowledge Representation
Mental Models and Reasoning
MentalLogic Theory What It Proposes and Reasons to Take This Proposal Seriously
Cognitive Heuristics Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way
The Assessment of Logical Reasoning
The Development of Deductive Reasoning
The Evolution of Reasoning
Individual Differences in Thinking Reasoning and Decision Making
Teaching Reasoning
What do We Know about the Nature of Reasoning?

Heuristics and Reasoning I Making Deduction Simple

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About the author (2004)

Robert J. Sternberg is Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences and Professor of Psychology at Tufts University. Prior to being at Tufts, he was IBM Professor of Psychology and Education, Professor of Management in the School of Management, and Director of the Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise at Yale University. This center, now relocated to Tufts, is dedicated to the advancement of theory, research, practice, and policy advancing the notion of intelligence as developing expertise, as a construct that is modifiable and capable, to some extent, of development throughout the lifespan. The Center seeks to have an impact on science, education, and society. Sternberg was the 2003 President of the American Psychological Association and is the 2006 2007 President of the Eastern Psychological Association. He was on the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association and the Board of Trustees of the APA Insurance Trust. He is currently on the Board of Trustees of the American Psychological Foundation and on the Board of Directors of the Eastern Psychological Association as well as of the American Association of Colleges and Universities. Sternberg received his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1975 and his B.A. from Yale University. He holds honorary doctorates from eight universities. He is the author of over 1,100 journal articles, chapters, and books. He focuses his research on intelligence, creativity, and wisdom and has studied love and close relationships as well as hate. This research has been conducted on five different continents.

Jacqueline P. Leighton is Professor of Educational Psychology and Director of the Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation (CRAME). She is also registered as a psychologist by the College of Alberta Psychologists. Her specialization is educational assessment and cognitive psychology, with an emphasis on test development and validity analysis. Dr Leighton's current research is on identifying and evaluating methods for generating cognitive models for educational assessment practice. Her research has been funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canadian Education Statistics Council (CESC) and is currently funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).

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