Neanderthals and Modern Humans: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective
Neanderthals and Modern Humans develops the theme of the close relationship between climate change, ecological change and biogeographical patterns in humans during the Pleistocene. In particular, it challenges the view that Modern Human 'superiority' caused the extinction of the Neanderthals between 40 and 30 thousand years ago. Clive Finlayson shows that to understand human evolution, the spread of humankind across the world and the extinction of archaic populations, we must move away from a purely theoretical evolutionary ecology base and realise the importance of wider biogeographic patterns including the role of tropical and temperate refugia. His proposal is that Neanderthals became extinct because their world changed faster than they could cope with, and that their relationship with the arriving Modern Humans, where they met, was subtle.
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2 Biogeographical patterns
3 Human range expansions contractions and extinctions
4 The Modern HumanNeanderthal problem
5 Comparative behaviour and ecology of Neanderthals and Modern Humans
6 The conditions in Africa and Eurasia during the last glacial cycle
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adapted Africa archaic areas Aurignacian barrier behaviour bioclimatic stages bovids Chapter characterised climate change cold and arid colonisation deer density dispersal distribution diversity early ecological environmental environments Eurasian Plain Europe evidence evolutionary evolved exploitation Figure Finlayson & Giles forest gene flow genetic geographical range Gibraltar Giles Pacheco heidelbergensis herbivores heterogeneous landscapes home ranges hominids Homo human evolution human populations Iberia Iberian Peninsula increase interglacial isolation last interglacial late Pleistocene lineage Magdalenian mammalian herbivores mammals Mediterranean mid-latitude belt Middle East Middle Palaeolithic middle Pleistocene Miocene Mode Modern Humans Moderns and Neanderthals morphology Mousterian Neanderthal extinction Neanderthal populations Neanderthals Neanderthals and Moderns North America open habitats pattern period persisted Pliocene predicted Quaternary refugia regions scale Solutrean South-east Asia southern spatial speciation species steppe Strait of Gibraltar survival temperature tropical Upper Palaeolithic variability vegetation Villafranchian warm