Artificial Intelligence: Mirrors for the Mind
In the 1950s, a new field, cognitive psychology, emerged as a dialogue between the growing capabilities of digital computers and the study of human cognition and perception. Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers began to develop models of perception, reasoning, knowledge organization, and natural language communication. They also created neural networks, expert systems, and other software with practical applications. AI models, in turn, have offered provocative insights into the human mind; now, new developments in virtual community and cyberspace point toward a future in which human and computer minds will interact in increasingly complex ways. Ultimately, AI research compels us to ask what it is that makes us human. Artificial Intelligence presents dynamic new portraits of the men and women in the vanguard of this innovative field. Subjects include Alan Turing, who made the connection between mathematical reasoning and computer operations; Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, who created a program that could reason like a human being; Pattie Maes, who developed computerized agents to help people with research and shopping; and Ray Kurzweil, who, besides inventing the flatbed scanner and a reading machine for the blind, has explored relationships between people and computers that may exceed human intelligence.
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1 Beyond Calculation
2 Mind In A Box
3 I Have A Little List
4 Simulated Brains
5 Harnessing Knowledge
6 The Commonsense Computer
7 At Your Service
8 Answering Eliza
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ability Accessed on August Alan Turing Allen Newell applications approach artiﬁcial artificial intelligence August 15 August 23 automated Available online Award behavior called chess cognition Colby complex computer program computer science computer scientist computing power consciousness create critics Describes developed Douglas Lenat Edward Feigenbaum electronic ELIZA emotions example expert systems field Further Reading Books goals Herbert Simon Hubert Dreyfus human brain ideas information processing Institute of Technology intel interact interest Internet inventor John McCarthy Joseph Weizenbaum knowledge base knowledge-based Lisp logic manipulate Marvin Minsky mathematician mathematics McCarthy’s Minsky’s moves natural language neural networks neurons Newell’s Pamela McCorduck paper Pattie Maes person philosophical physical pioneers possible Prediction puter Ray Kurzweil reading machine reasoning robot rules simulation software agents Spiritual Machines Stanford structures suggests tasks techniques technological singularity theorems theory thinking tion today’s Turing test Turing’s understand University user’s York