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THE WORLD OF MEASUREMENT
SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR
B ANALYZING MEASUREMENTS
4 other sections not shown
accuracy adjustment alignment analysis angle measurement angular error applied assumed azimuth bubble axis bubble centering calculations calibrated centering error Chapter circle closing error compensated computed correction cross-hair curvature determined differential leveling direction effects elevation difference engineering equation equipment error of closure error sources error theory estimate example feet focussing formula geodetic Gunter's chain histogram horizontal angle horizontal axis horizontal distance illustrated instrumental error line of sight maladjustment mean measurement theory ment meters method mistakes objective lens observed perpendicular personal errors photogrammetry pointing error position precision problem procedure radians random errors reading and pointing reading error result reticle rod reading round-off errors scale seconds Section sight distances significant figures Solution stadia station steel tape subtense bar surface surveying measurements surveyors systematic errors tape length target target centering telescope temperature tension theodolite theory traverse true value uncertainty vernier vertical angle vertical axis vertical plane zenith angle