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artificial lighting assembly rooms attic rooms average bad odor basement rooms black-boards boys brick annex Buffalo School Association building is heated Building.—The built cellar CHARLES KENNEDY children's wraps hang class-rooms cloak-rooms cloudy days coal gas cost cubic air space cubic feet danger from fire dark defective deficient in air Delaware Avenue doors draught examiner fan system Fillmore Avenue fire escapes flues four rooms frame building furnished girls grade rooms heated by stoves heating and ventilating inspec insufficient on cloudy janitor kerosene lamps lavatory Light.—Is insufficient main building mud street occupied old building open windows overcrowded partitions pasteboard annex play-ground rear rented annex rented building Richlawn rooms are deficient rooms deficient Sanitaries.—Closets Sanitaries.—The closets sanitary condition school buildings school-rooms second floor sewer gas six rooms space per child stairs teachers temperature third floor three rooms tion towels unventilated ventilating apparatus Ventilation.—System walls with windows window ventilation
Page 7 - In judging the sanitary condition of the school buildings the Committee has necessarily been guided by a standard. By standard is here meant, not the ideal building with the best modern equipments, but a building that is sufficiently well constructed and equipped, to avoid condemnation in any important respect. Many of the necessities in such a building are evident to any person. Some of them are especially worthy of mention, and are here given.
Page 14 - Nos. 1 8, 24 and 32, are old school buildings, built, all of them, before 1860. The one belonging to School 18 dates as far back as 1848. These are brick buildings, with an assembly room on each floor, and smaller recitation rooms at the rear. Two have no cellar, but simply a ventilated air-space underneath, and the third has a low basement used for coal. All three of these buildings depend for heat upon stoves alone.
Page 33 - There should be a thorough examination, as soon as possible, by experts, of the air of the class-rooms. 32 in not more than 20 of these schools, and in many of them it accomplishes practically nothing in this direction. 11. School rooms which are deficient in natural light on bright days should be abandoned, and a sufficient supply of artificial light should be furnished those liable to be dark at times. 12. Desks should be so arranged that the light comes from the proper quarter, and shades should...
Page 20 - The general condition of the sanitaries varies greatly ; twentyeight are pronounced good ; seven, bad ; one, foul ; seven, fair ; seven have bad odors; four, imperfect flushing; five, no ventilating shafts (or practically none, for they do not work) ; two are imperfectly ventilated ; one is good, but not large enough for the school; one, on third floor, has insufficient flushing; one does not expose plumbing ; three have other defects ; one has its cement floor sloping in the wrong direction.
Page 26 - ... According to a report furnished by the Superintendent of Public Buildings, the fan system of heating and ventilating is found in 33 schools, including the two high schools. The total cost for the 33 schools is $241,303.64, an average of considerably over $7,000 for each school. And yet we find that in nine of these schools the ventilation is decidedly imperfect, and in eight others positively bad. These facts speak for themselves and require no comment. Certainly, no more money should be spent...
Page 25 - The committee also regards this subject of ventilation as one of vital importance. The continued breathing of air laden with impurities, gaseous, organic and bacterial, is the cause of many diseases ; and, what is at least equally important, is still more frequently the cause of lowered vitality, predisposing to more definite diseases. Headache, lethargy, mental dullness, various nervous disturbances, impoverished blood, and many other ailments are common results.
Page 17 - It opened into another cloak-room, was within two and one-half feet of a neglected stable and within 10 feet of the outhouse belonging to the annex. The room was so crowded that children were in contact with the window and the fender of the stove. The condition of this room on a winter day, with wet wraps on the wall and the stove doing its best, may be imagined. A hall in another rented annex, with a floor space of 10 x 23 feet, and 12 feet in height, was used both as cloak-room and recitation room...
Page 28 - But, even with this large average area for light, there are reported five (5) rooms in which the light is insufficient even on bright days, and over one hundred (100) in which the light is insufficient on cloudy days. In forty (40) of this latter number, artificial light is used on cloudy days from a few minutes to all day, depending upon the season of the year and the weather.
Page 17 - A hall in another rented annex, with a floor space of 10 x 23 feet, and 12 feet in height, was used both as cloak-room and recitation room also. At one end there was a door, at the other a window, both closed, and in this space were a large stove, a sink, a water-closet, the wraps of 100 children, and frequently a teacher and 38 pupils. This hall was between the two grade rooms.
Page 32 - ... against the close proximity of neighbors detrimental to its value as school property. In this way, playgrounds would be furnished also. This provision has been neglected in connection with even the most recently built schools, erected in sections of the city where land is cheap. 2. Such appropriations for school buildings should be made as shall speedily abolish the annexes, relieve the overcrowding in the schools and allow the normal amount of air space for each pupil.