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angle annealing apparent elastic limit average axis beam bending Bessemer process brick briquettes carbon cast iron cement-mortar cent centre chemical compression conifers cooling copper cross-bending cross-section crushing crystals curve deflection deformation diagram diameter ductility effect elongation Engrs external forces fibres fracture given hard hardening heartwood heat hence increase iron and steel length lime load long-leaf machine magnetic manganese material maximum metal mixture modulus of elasticity moisture mortar moulds open-hearth open-hearth process oxide percentage phosphorus piece pine pith-rays plane plates Portland cement pounds per square proportion reduced reduction of area resistance rivets rolled rupture sand sapwood shearing stress shown in Fig shrinkage side silica silicon soft species specimen square inch standard stress-diagram structure summer wood surface temperature tensile strength tensile stress tension tests test-pieces thickness timber tion transverse tree ultimate strength weight weld wire wrought iron
Page 765 - On tests cut from other material the test piece may be either the same as for sheared plates, or it may be planed or turned parallel throughout its entire length, and in all cases where possible two opposite sides of the test piece shall be the rolled surfaces.
Page 767 - For all plates ordered to gauge, there will be permitted an average excess of weight over that corresponding to the dimensions on the order, equal in amount to that specified in the following table: TABLE OF ALLOWANCES FOR OVERWEIGHT FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES WHEN ORDERED TO GAUGE.
Page 766 - Bending test, 180 degrees flat on itself, without fracture on outside of bent portion. 94. Soft steel shall have: Ultimate strength, 52,000 to 62,000 pounds per square inch. Elastic limit, not less than one-half the ultimate strength. Elongation, 25 per cent.
Page 768 - Material which is to be used without annealing or further treatment is to be tested in the condition in which it comes from the rolls. When material is to be annealed or otherwise treated before use, the specimen representing such material is to be similarly treated before testing.
Page 271 - Very variable, very light and soft in "soft" pine, such as white pine; of medium weight to heavy and quite hard in "hard" pine, of which longleaf or Georgia pine is the extreme form. Usually it is stiff, quite strong, of even texture, and more or less resinous. The sapwood is yellowish white ; the heartwood, orange brown. Pine shrinks moderately, seasons rapidly and without much injury; it works easily; is never too hard to nail (unlike oak or hickory); it is mostly quite durable, and if well seasoned...
Page 766 - ... pounds below the minimum tensile strength required in specimen tests of the grade of steel from which they are rolled. The bars will be required to break in the body, but should a bar break in the head, but develop 10 per cent elongation, and the ultimate strength specified, it shall not be cause for rejection, provided not more than one-third of the total number of bars tested break in the head; otherwise the entire lot will be rejected.
Page 768 - Ultimate strength, 52,000 to 62,000 pounds per square inch. Elastic limit, not less than one-half the ultimate strength. Elongation, 26 per cent. Cold and Quench Bends, 180 degrees flat on itself, without fracture on outside of bent portion.
Page 205 - The concentric, annual, or yearly rings, which appear on the end face of a log are cross sections of so many thin layers of wood. Each such layer forms an envelope around its Inner neighbor, and is in turn covered by the adjoining layer without, so that the whole stem is built up of a series of thin hollow cylinders, or rather cones. A new layer of wood is formed each season, covering the entire stem, as well as all the living branches. The thickness of this layer, or the width of the yearly ring,...
Page 271 - It is also used in almost every other wood industry, for spars, masts, planks, and timbers in shipbuilding, in car and wagon construction, in cooperage, for crates and boxes, in furniture work, for toys and patterns, railway ties, water pipes, excelsior, etc. Pines are usually large trees with few branches, the straight, cylindrical, useful stem forming by far the greatest part of the tree; they occur gregariously, forming vast forests, a fact which greatly facilitates their exploitation. Of the...